Save Your Marriage

Mend the Marriage

Mend the marriage is a digital program designed to help couples save their marriage. Probably as I write today, various marriages are undergoing a rocky state. Marriage is life-long commitment bondage and the beginning of the family. Typically, it is more than a physical union but also a spiritual and emotional union. Biblically, the union pictures the sense of God and the church. Ideally, there are more benefits associated with marriage. However, several couples may not enjoy their marriages due to various uncertainties that sometimes leads to separation and even divorce. From this perspective, Mend, the marriage program, was created. We all aspire to live a happy and healthy marriage. Brad Browning, from Vancouver, is a relationship coach and divorce expert. He has worked in this field for several years. Brad has met and helped thousands of couples whose relationships had rotten. He is a well-known resourceful marriage advisor globally through his videos and published books that have spread worldwide. Furthermore, in his program, you will learn several essential matters to help you hold a successful marriage, such as marriage mistakes, mend the marriage, techniques of reading your spouse's mind, forgiveness techniques, diffuse dispute techniques, and how to correct the previous mistakes. Additionally, the program is associated with various benefits. These include: it is certified, helps you connect with your partner emotionally and sexually, and has two versions for men and women. Read more...

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Family Therapy

A family analysis should be done on all AN patients who are living with their families and a decision made as to what type of family therapy or counseling is advisable. Most clinicians find it necessary to combine individual therapy with some sort of family counseling. Russell, G. F. M., Szmukler, G. I., & Dore, C. (1987). An evaluation of family therapy in anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Arch. Gen Psych, 44, 1047-1056. See also Bulimia Family Therapy

Marital Discord

The large volume of research on marital discord and the related constructs of marital conflict and marital dissatisfaction attest to the perceived importance of understanding the problems that sometimes arise in marriage. Of the various terms used in this area of inquiry, marital satisfaction is the best defined, referring to an evaluation of the relationship or the partner. Because of their clarity and brevity, measures of marital satisfaction play a prominent role in all areas of marital research. Marital conflict is a somewhat broader term than marital satisfaction and is used to refer to spousal perceptions, emotions, anticipations, and behavior in relation to some disagreement or area of differing interests. However, marital conflict is not inherently negative and may or may not be associated with marital dissatisfaction. In some cases marital conflict may set the stage for increases in relationship satisfaction, while in others it may be the harbinger of deterioration in the...

Functions of Concepts

So far, we have introduced two roles for concepts categorization (broadly construed) and communication. These functions and associated subfunctions are important to bear in mind because studying any one in isolation can lead to misleading conclusions about conceptual structure (see Solomon, Medin, & Lynch, 1999, for a review bearing on this point). At this juncture, however, we need to introduce one more plot element into the story we are telling. Presumably everything we have been talking about has implications for human memory and memory organization. After all, concepts are mental representations, and people must store these representations somewhere in memory. However, the relation between concepts and memory may be more intimate. A key part of our story is what we call the semantic memory marriage, the idea that memory organization corresponds to meaningful relations between concepts. Mental pathways that lead from one concept to another - for example, from ELBOW to ARM -...

Professional practice

The only universally accepted sexual activity is that which is seen to take place for reproductive purposes within marriage this is explicit in most religions and many societies and implicit in others. Sexual deviance is often measured in terms of how far away an activity is from this norm. If children

Diving In Follow That Sperm

My work expands on previous scholarship by analyzing how sperm is a liminal substance that traffics between biological and social worlds. That is, sperm is both a material and a symbolic entity, is a part of both nature and culture, and has scientific and social value. For example, anthropologist Emily Martin, in her groundbreaking article, The Egg and the Sperm How Science Constructed a Romance Based on Stereotypical Male-Female Roles, showed that there is no objective and true knowledge about fertilization by revealing the ways in which scientific knowledge is always socially and historically situated. Martin shows that the tropes of biological textbooks reveal the cultural beliefs and practices enacted in these suggestive images sperm are strong, eggs are passive. In this book, I build on Martin's concerns about the power of metaphor in science to keep alive some of the hoariest old stereotypes about weak damsels in distress and their strong male rescuers. 11

Research on Belief in a Just World

Overall, research on BJW falls into one of several categories. For example, a large number of studies have examined how people cope with injustice, including how they react emotionally, behaviorally, and cognitively to victims of injustice. Included are investigations of behavioral and characterological blame, with victimized groups including victims of rape or incest, the homeless, victims of spouse abuse, members of stereotyped groups, and people with diseases such as cancer or AIDS. Asecond category of research examines the role of BJW in other social processes. Included are studies examining how BJW relates to perceived risk assessment, facilitates coping with acute stress, is associated with life and marital satisfaction, contributes to practice of health behaviors, is associated with investment in long-term goals and motivation, relates to religiosity, and predicts recovery from illness. In contrast to the victim derogation work, these studies usually assess the adaptive side of...

Psychosocial Approaches

Some, albeit limited, empirical support. One is family or marital therapy, particularly psychoeducational approaches that focus on teaching patients and their family members about bipolar disorder and how to manage it and effective ways to communicate and solve family problems (Miklowitz & Goldstein, 1997 Miklowitz et al., 2000). Asecond is interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, an individual therapy that focuses on helping the patient understand and renegotiate the interpersonal context associated with mood disorder symptoms (Frank, Swartz, & Kupfer, 2000). Patients learn to stabilize sleep wake rhythms and other daily routines, particularly in the face of environmental triggers for disruption. A third treatment is individual cognitive-behavioral therapy, in which patients learn to identify, evaluate, and restructure cognitive distortions, and develop illness management strategies such as behavioral activation, drug compliance monitoring, and the appropriate use of support systems...

Child And Adolescent Depression

Although the cause of depression is not yet determined, it is thought that depression is most likely to occur when a number of risk factors come together. Biological vulnerability is one of these factors Children whose parents have had significant depression are at a markedly increased risk for depression as well as other behavioral and emotional problems. Children may inherit a genetic risk for depression or temperamental qualities such as sensitivity to negative emotions, or they may learn depressive coping styles from their parents. Both adults and young people who are depressed share a depressive or negative way of thinking that leads them to view themselves, the world, and their future in a negative way. This is frequently described as seeing the cup as half empty, while others can look at the same situation and see the cup as half full. Many times depressed individuals come to see all failures as due to their own inherent faults but any success as pure chance or a fluke. This is...

Multibonding and Health

Studies of polygynous relationships in Africa have also, however, documented significant difficulties. Wives may not welcome the entry of new co-wives into the relationship, fearing that their inclusion will result in a reduction in the availability of material resources for themselves and their children, a diminution in their husband's emotional availability to themselves and their children, and or a reduction in their husband's sexual availability (Adams and Mburugu, 1994 Ware, 1979, Wittrup, 1990). Such fears or perceptions may give rise to envy and jealousy between co-wives (Eichenbaum and Orbach, 1988 Fainzang and Journet, 1988 Potash, 1995). Although some reports and accounts indicate that wife order may be an important factor in women's satisfaction in their relationship (Chaleby, 1985), a study of polygamous marriages in Cameron found that wife order had a negligible effect on either life or marital satisfaction among the women (Gwanfogne, Furrow, Schumm, and Smith, 1997 ).

Efficacy Research on Psychotherapy

Efficacy studies for Schizophrenia focus on relapse prevention and typically compare two or more psy-chotherapies in patients also receiving antipsychotic medication. Overall, when compared to treatment as usual, behavioral, supportive, and systems-based family therapies and social skills training have demonstrated efficacy in reducing relapse in Schizophrenia (e.g., Falloon et al., 1984 Hogarty, Anderson, & Reiss, 1986 Leff, Kuipers, Berko-witz, & Sturgeon, 1985 Schooler et al., 1997). The different family-based interventions appear to be equivalent to each other (Baucom, Shoham, Mueser, Daiuto, & Stickle, 1998 Brent et al., 1997) except that family therapy utilizing insight-oriented techniques and focusing on the past has not demonstrated efficacy in reducing relapse (Kottgen, Sonnichsen, Mollenhauer, & Jurth, 1984) and can be associated with negative outcomes (McFarlane, Link, Dushay, Marchal, & Crilly, 1995).

Orgasm Disorders Female Orgasmic Disorder

Sexual activities and increasing positive behavioral experiences. The treatment is moderately short, averaging 10 to 20 sessions. The major treatment components include sensate focus, directed masturbation, and systematic de-sensitization. Sensate focus involves exchanging physical caresses, moving from nonsexual to increasingly sexual touching of one another's body over an assigned period of time. Directed masturbation involves a series of at-home exercises that begin with visual and tactile total body exploration and move toward increased genital stimulation with the eventual optional use of a vibrator. Directed masturbation is the technique with the best success rates systematic desensitization is particularly useful when anxiety plays a primary role in the dysfunction. Couples therapy that focuses on enhancing intimacy and increasing communication has also been used for the treatment of FOD, but the success rates of this approach have not been well established.

How can trichomoniasis be prevented

Monogamy is sex between two people, who only have sex with each other, as part of a long-term relationship. If neither partner is infected, there is no risk of disease transmission. Getting to know your partner and his her sexual history before you decide to have sex can also reduce your chance of exposure to disease. A series of short-term relationships is not as safe because of the increased risk that one of those partners will be infected. Use Condoms and other barriers

Problems Associated with Excessive Gambling

Problem gamblers are more likely to suffer from depression or alcohol problems. They report greater rates of psychological distress and more use of psychiatric treatment. Problem gamblers often experience serious relationship difficulties. Spouses and family members must cope with the consequences of the gambler's behavior, including absence from the home, distrust of the gambler, and stress over family finances. Among problem gamblers, divorce rates are higher than the national average.

NRTIs In Clinical Use

In HIV-infected patients administered ZDV, the main metabolite in PBMCs was monophosphate, illustrating that conversion to diphosphate is rate limiting both in vivo and in vitro. Studies have shown antiviral effect to be correlated with the intracellular level of ZDVTP and the ZDVTP-to-deoxythymidine ratio in vitro. The intracellular concentration of ZDVTP was positively correlated to both the increase in CD4 cells and the decrease in plasma viral load during therapy (39). On the other hand, there is evidence that cytotoxicity has a better relationship with ZDV monophosphate (40). Interestingly, ZDV monophosphate accumulation is greater in HIV patients than in seronegative volunteers (32).

Applications of Gestalt Therapy

As originally practiced by Fritz Perls, Gestalt therapy was primarily an individual form of treatment. Other Gestaltists have applied the principles to group therapy (e.g., Glass, 1972 Feder & Ronall, 1980). Going beyond Perls's unique personal style of therapy, the work has been extended to a broad spectrum of client populations. Brown (1975) and Oaklander (1978) have described Gestalt work with children and adolescents. Gestalt family therapy is presented in the works of Kempler (1981) and Resnikoff (1995). Herman and Korenich's applications to management (1977) further increased the breadth and scope of Gestalt theory and practice.

Child Partnering and Health

Feminist theorists have viewed incest as a linear issue with the abuser having power and control over the victim, who has neither power nor control, thereby assigning blame to the perpetrator alone (Ehrmin, 1996). Indeed, the feminist perspective on incest asserts that the family therapy literature ignores the patriarchal context of incest and obscures its inherent gender politics (James and Mackinnon, 1990). Although this conceptual model acknowledges and incorporates the potential influence of the larger environment, which is absent from systems theory that focuses on the family system alone, it is itself deficient in its failure to adequately encompass and explain incestuous behavior of adult females initiated with male or female children, and that of adult males with male children.

Explanatory Frameworks and Risk Factors

Several explanatory frameworks have been developed to describe the causes of partner abuse. Feminist accounts identify partner abuse as a product of a patriarchal (maledominated) society. Violence in the home is viewed as one of many expressions of gender-based power inequality in society (Yllo, 1993). Psychological accounts identify partner abuse, particularly severe partner abuse, as a manifestation of the interaction between individual personality traits or personality disorders and other risk factors such as marital dissatisfaction (O'Leary, 1993). Sociological accounts identify position in the social structure as an important causal factor in partner abuse. Substantial research linking variables associated with position in the social structure, such as poverty, age, and race, to partner abuse provides support for this explanatory framework (Gelles, 1993). Numerous other social, psychological, and biological factors, such as anger, depression, witnessing violence as a child,...

Intervention and Prevention Strategies

A variety of psychological interventions are currently utilized, particularly psychoeducational and therapy groups for men (and occasionally women) who abuse their partners. Various legal interventions including arrest, prosecution, and restraining orders are also used to manage this problem. For severely abused women, support groups are commonly used along with legal advocates, shelters, social service agencies, and individual therapeutic interventions to help victims leave abusive relationships and rebuild their lives. For women and men in less severely abusive relationships where both the male and female engage in physically aggressive behaviors, couple or marital therapy based interventions designed specifically to reduce psychological and physical aggression can be useful (O'Leary, Hey-man, & Neidig, 1999). Dating violence prevention programs in junior high and high school are designed to provide children with education and skills and to foster attitudes that will reduce or...

Psychotherapy Definition and Utilization

What is psychotherapy Although originally defined as one-on-one sessions between a patient and therapist with the intent of changing the inner workings of the patient's psychological life, over the last several decades psychotherapy has broadened in its formats, participants, procedures, and focus (there are now over 250 different forms of psychotherapy) so that any definition of psychotherapy must be far-ranging enough to encompass the full spectrum of different psychotherapies. What relaxation therapy, family therapy, cognitive therapy, group therapy, insight-oriented therapy, play therapy (with children), exposure therapy to name a few have in common is a set of psychological or behavioral procedures, delivered by one or more therapists, designed to change the thoughts, feelings, somatic symptoms, or behaviors of one or more participants who are seeking help. it is generally delivered by psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, family therapists, psychiatric nurses, pastoral...

Quality of Life and Functional Impact of Cancer

Later differences in employment may also be evident in some survivors, despite overall high rates of employment in survivors generally. Survivors appear to be employed less frequently than their siblings 40 , although more survivors than siblings report being students or homemakers 33 .As many as one-third of all survivors report problems obtaining health insurance 40 , a potentially significant problem in this medically-vulnerable population. Rates of marriage are also generally high, although there is evidence that survivors marry at rates lower than those of their siblings or population norms. Those with CNS tumors appear to have lower marriage rates and, when they do marry, higher divorce rates 33,48 .

School Refusal Behavior

For children who refuse school for tangible rewards outside of school, family therapy is often used. In this approach, family members (e.g., parents and teenager) are encouraged to design contracts that increase rewards for school attendance and decrease rewards for absenteeism. The latter sometimes involves increasing supervision of the child and escorting him or her from class to class. Related procedures include communication skills training to reduce conflict and increase negotiation among family members and peer refusal skills training so that youth can appropriately refuse offers to miss school. See also Anxiety Family Therapy

Sexual Aversion Disorder

Defined as the avoidance of sexual genital contact with a partner, Sexual Aversion Disorder (SAD) has a high comor-bidity with history of sexual abuse, vaginismus, and dys-pareunia. Treatment for this condition often combines couples therapy and cognitive therapy and focuses on solving conflict areas within the couple, such as emotional differences and issues of control. Anxiety reduction techniques such as systematic desensitization are used when the aversion is accompanied by strong feelings of anxiety. Systematic desensitization consists of identifying a hierarchy of sexual activities that provoke anxiety and then pairing relaxation techniques with imagining the sexual activity. The goal is for the patient to feel relaxed while imagining each sexual activity and eventually while actually engaging in each sexual activity. Some therapists feel that, during treatment of sexual abuse survivors, trauma-related issues need to be resolved before SAD is addressed.

Coping with Pain and Stress Related to Illness

There is a growing recognition for the need to treat individuals with this disease from a multidisciplinary perspective. There are now comprehensive SCD centers that emphasize the importance of integrating psychosocial and educational programs with clinical and basic science research. The goals of these centers often include providing multiple types of psychological treatments such as biofeedback and individual and family therapy along with traditional medical management approaches to enhance pain management and overall coping in patients and their families.

Recent Research Trends

To a large degree, research on single parenthood has focused on single mothers and been generalized to all parents (Hilton et al., 2001). More recently, researchers have analyzed the single-parenthood experience in terms of single mothers, single fathers, and intact families. Hilton and Devall (1998) noted that divorce tends to have a positive effect on the parenting of fathers (when they become single parents) and a negative effect on mothers (when they become single parents). Single fathers were also rated to be as effective (in terms of positive parenting) as single and married mothers and rated more positive (in terms of parenting) than married fathers (Hilton et al., 2001 Hilton & Devall, 1998). Collectively, the research relating to single fathers appears to have significant implications for custody decisions. Financial strain has been identified as an important factor in undermining a woman's ability to adjust to the role in single parenthood. In this regard, Hilton et al....

Reformulations of Stage Theories

Coinciding with the dramatic rise in marital transitions (e.g., divorce, remarriage, and redivorce) in subsequent decades, R. Hill and other family theorists formulated more complex stage theories (i.e., greater variability in the number, types, and timing of stages with concomitant alterations in developmental tasks) taking into account the prevalence and diversity of single-parent families and step-families. Considering a divorce rate of nearly 50 extend ing over three decades and the fact that most divorced people remarry (many of whom have children from prior marriages), the burgeoning diversity of family structures required a reformulation of Duvall's original theory of the family life cycle. Stage theories persisted but were now defined in terms of marital stability or instability, whether one or both remarried partners had children from prior marriages (i.e., simple vs. complex stepfamilies), custody arrangements (e.g., stepfather vs. stepmother families), the presence or...

Paradoxical Intervention

References to resolving problems with paradoxical interventions appear as early as the eighteenth century. In this century, Dunlap applied the technique of negative practice to problems such as stammering and enuresis. Rosen (1953), through direct psychoanalysis, encouraged psychiatric patients to engage in aspects of their psychosis in order to prevent relapse, and Frankl (1960) used paradoxical intention to help his patients revise the meaning of their symptoms. The most influential literature on therapeutic paradox, however, derives from Bateson's 1952-1962 project on communication. Bateson, Jackson, Haley, Weak-land, and others explored the role of paradoxical doublebind communications in resolving as well as creating problems. Influenced by systemic cybernetic ideas and by the work of master hypnotist Milton Erickson, descendants of the Bateson project such as Haley, Weakland, Watzlawick, Fisch, and Selvini-Palazzoli and colleagues went on in the 1970s to develop family therapy...

Primary Secondary And Tertiary Gains And Secondary Losses

Tertiary gains are attained from a patient's illness by someone other than the patient. It is not known whether these occur at a conscious or unconscious level. The following is a list of possible tertiary gains Collusion on the part of the significant other to focus on patient's somatic complaints diversion of attention from existential issues (cancer death) enjoyment of change in role for significant other financial gain sympathy from social network decreased family tension and resolution of marital difficulties.

Treating the Relationship

Traditional Sullivanian thinking has developed into systems theory. Variants of systems theory focus on treating the relationship. The family therapy theories developed by Bowen (1978), Haley (1963), Madanes (1981), Minuchin (1974), and Satir (1967, 1972) are prime examples of relationship therapies. Another group of therapists who focused on relationships concern themselves with conducting marital therapy. John Mordechai Gottman (1995) has been foremost in his research and treatment program for defining marital troubles and their treatment. Relationship treatments tend to be time limited active in interventions problem focused present oriented interpersonal and oriented to coping, identifying assets, and improving relationships. Berne, E. (1964). Games people play. New York Grove. Bowen, M. (1978). Family therapy in clinical practice. New York Klerman, G. L., & Weissman, M. M. (Eds.). (1993). New applications of interpersonal psychotherapy. Washington, DC American Psychiatric Press....

Adulthood And Aging Social Processes And Development

Close social partners provide emotionally meaningful interactions, and satisfaction with family members, including siblings, spouse, and children, increases with age. The sibling relationship represents one of the longest, more enduring relationships in life, and Victor Cicirelli's (1989) research reveals that people who report positive relationships with siblings, particularly their sisters, also report lower levels of depression. In addition, the marital tie is also important to overall well-being. Across the life span, marital satisfaction follows a curvilinear pattern high in the early years of marriage, decreasing slightly into middle adulthood, and then rising again toward the end of middle age. People whose marriages survived into old age report high levels of marital happiness and contentment. Although they reported that difficult times did occur, they attribute their marriage's longevity to strong levels of mutual commitment and friendship. Friendships comprise many different...

Adolescent Sex Offenders

An increasing number of rehabilitation programs are now available for the specific treatment of the adolescent sex offender. A National Adolescent Perpetrator Network has been established with guidelines for treatment components and goals. These include confronting denial, accepting responsibility, understanding the pattern or cycle of sexually offensive behaviors, developing empathy for victims, controlling deviant sexual arousal, combating cognitive distortions that trigger offending, expressing emotions and the self, developing trust, remediating social skills deficits, and preventing relapse. In addition, these intensive treatment programs focus on didactic instruction on normal human sexuality, training in interpersonal and dating skills, and the teaching of anger control techniques. Psychodynamic-oriented therapy has shown disappointing results, whereas various behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and prescriptive approaches have proved to be most efficacious. Many programs use a...

Communication Skills Training

Therapists of diverse theoretical positions have long realized that numerous clients with a variety of psychopatho-logical complaints are deficient in interpersonal or communication skills. Persons diagnosed as schizophrenic, neurotic, or mildly mentally retarded, as well as alcoholics, those having marital difficulties, and parents with child management problems, have all been seen as having difficulties in interpersonal communication. In the period from 1970 to 1980, three major trends led to the increased emphasis upon communication skills training as an important therapeutic and preventive tool. The first and perhaps most important trend was the disenchantment of many psychologists and other therapists with the medical model of therapeutic intervention. As Goldstein has noted in Psychological Skills Training (1981), an increasing number of therapists turned to a different set of assumptions. Basic to this new approach is the assumption that the client is suffering from a skill...

Severity Of Psychosocial Stressors Scale

Research has distinguished the impact of time-limited events from that of more deleterious chronic stressors. For example, years of unemployment will likely be more stressful than a recent job loss. Consequently, the Severity Scale in the DMS III-R was rated for either acute events lasting less than six months (e.g., death in the family) or enduring conditions lasting more than six months (e.g., chronic illness). In addition, separate scales were provided for assessing stressors in adults (e.g., marital problems) and in adolescents or children (e.g., rejection by parents).

Risk Assessment and Risk Reduction Counseling Guidance and Training for Health Care Providers

Monogamy is sex between two people, who only have sex with each other, as part of a long-term relationship. If neither partner is infected, there is no risk of disease transmission. People who get to know their partner and his her sexual history before deciding to have sex can also reduce the chance of exposure to disease. A series of short-term relationships is not as safe because of the increased risk that one of those partners will be infected.

The Healing Environment Feng Shui

Pronounced fung shway, this is the ancient practice of creating energy and harmony through your environmental surroundings (landscaping, interior design, and architecture). People tend to think of feng shui as something that can bring wealth to you (as in money corners) or romance (as in hanging certain items over the bed), but this is in fact not what authentic feng shui consultants look for. Harmony has many elements

Reducing Noncompliance

The literature suggests the importance of several interventions, although they tend to be complex and difficult to implement. More convenient care, improved instruction, reminders, self-monitoring, reinforcement, counseling, family therapy, attention, and tailoring the regimen to daily habits are among successful approaches (Haynes et al., 2002). Interventions often involve cognitive or psychosocial approaches.

Parent Management Training

PMT programs all share several common or core elements, including (1) focusing more on parents than on the child (2) teaching parents to identify, define, and record child behavior (3) instructing parents in social learning principles (e.g., reinforcement of prosocial behavior, withdrawal of attention for misbehavior through the use of ignoring or time-out) (4) teaching new parenting skills via didactic instruction, modeling, role-playing, and practicing with the child in the clinic and at home (5) discussing ways to maximize generalization of skills from the clinic to the home and, when necessary, (6) addressing contextual issues affecting parents (e.g., depressive symptoms), the family (e.g., marital conflict), and the community (e.g., neighborhood violence) which may interfere with the acquisition or maintenance of new parenting skills and the promotion of adaptive child behavior.

Not the purview of the paediatrician

When professionals are involved in providing care for young children, often from birth, they become connected to the child and the progress that they make as they grow and achieve normal developmental milestones. They have long-term relationships with these children and their families, become comfortable and, in many ways, feel a bit like 'family'. What component of professional training prepares the health and social work team for children growing up and becoming sexually active Making the transition to seeing them in this light, especially when their engagement in sexual activity starts young, can be challenging.

Primary Prevention Of Psychopathology

A high level of stress-causing conditions (e.g., power-lessness, unemployment, sexism, marital disruption, loss of support systems) can cause any of several patterns of emotional disruption (e.g., depression, alcoholism, anxiety, hypertension). In brief, there is a nonspecific relation between causes and consequences.

Intervention Strategies Service Delivery and Treatment Fidelity

Specific MST interventions include strategies from pragmatic family therapies, behavioral parent training, social learning contingency management approaches, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Interventions are theory-based, have empirical support, and are delivered strategically and flexibly throughout the treatment process. MST interventions often have the following goals (1) to reduce unproductive caregiver-youth conflict (2) to improve caregiver monitoring, limit setting, and family management practices (3) to enhance family communication and problemsolving mechanisms (4) to develop adaptive levels of family cohesion and adaptability (5) to extricate youth from ties with deviant peers and to increase their association with prosocial peers (6) to increase academic and social competencies and (7) to increase involvement with prosocial organizations (e.g., religious groups, community recreational facilities).

Schizophrenia Adolescent And Childhood

Although symptom amelioration is vital, the ultimate goal of treatment for children and teenagers with Schizophrenia is to provide these vulnerable youths the best opportunity to achieve developmentally appropriate academic goals while enjoying rich and fulfilling relationships with their peers and loved ones.

Constructivist Psychotherapy

Constructivist therapy has been used with a wide range of problems, from mild adjustment issues to the most severely disturbed clients. It has been used with specific symptoms (e.g., stuttering, obesity, bulimia, posttraumatic flashbacks) as well as more general life distress. It also has been useful with young children as well as elderly clients. Specific constructivist techniques have been developed for family therapy (e.g., systemic bow-ties to help each client understand how their actions, based upon their deepest fears, confirm the deepest fears of other family members).


Treatment efforts include both psychological and pharmacological approaches. A number of psychological therapies are effective in the treatment of Substance Abuse or Dependence. Brief, motivationally focused interventions are effective for individuals with milder problems, and they also may enhance treatment outcomes when combined with ongoing treatments (Bien, Miller, & Tonigan, 1993). Cognitive-behavioral therapies, including community reinforcement treatment, relapse prevention, social skills training, and behavioral couples therapy, have good support for their effectiveness in treating Alcohol Dependence (McCrady & Langenbucher, 1996). Community reinforcement combined with the use of vouchers (Higgins et al., 1994), and family therapy (Liddle & Dakof, 1995) are effective in treating drug dependence. Outcomes for those who complete long-term treatment in therapeutic communities are good, but dropout rates are high (Simpson & Curry, 1997). Treatments to facilitate involvement with...

Monogamy and Health

The 1991 General Social Survey of 1212 individuals conducted by the National Opinion Research Center found that 11 of the female respondents and 21 of the participating males indicated having had sexual relations with someone other than their spouse during their marriage (Greeley, 1994). Among men, sex outside of marriage was associated with a belief that adultery is not wrong, dissatisfaction with family life, a perception of poor health, recent psychological counseling, and self-reported drunkenness and smoking. Among women, predictors of extramarital sex included loss of a job, conflict with a spouse, trouble with a child, dissatisfaction with family life, and psychological counseling. In general, sex outside of Numerous studies have found that individuals are more likely to use condoms with casual partners than they are with their primary relationship partners. A review of studies focusing on relationships statuses and the practice of safer sex identified 54 studies that found...


Straightforward filling of information gaps is also useful. For example, recruits may not know the true identity of the group they have joined, the fact that creative community projects give nothing to the community, that they will be expected to devote their life to the group, or that their marriage partner and the date of the marriage will be chosen for them. Of particular usefulness is a description and explanation of the indoctrination process.


Prevalence estimates range from 3 to 7 , with about 3 times more males than females affected. ADHD was conceptualized as a childhood disorder that one outgrew until longitudinal research showed that although some manifestations of the disorder become less problematic when formal education is completed, the overall pattern persists in at least 30-50 of the affected population. In addition to the primary symptoms, individuals with ADHD are at increased risk for poor academic progress, school difficulties, and poor interpersonal relationships. Increased rates of anxiety and depression, more aggressive and delinquent behavior, and increased rates of Substance Abuse also have been documented. Furthermore, adults with ADHD may have vocational difficulties, increased risk for motor vehicle accidents, and greater marital instability.

Marriage Counseling

Research has shown that marriage counseling is an effective form of treatment for marital discord. Results from studies comparing treatment groups to no treatment control groups have consistently found that counseling increases relationship satisfaction, which is the most commonly evaluated outcome measure. One way to quantify the impact of treatment is through effect size statistics, which provide information regarding the degree to which counseling is effective. Shadish et al. (1993) reported a mean effect size of .71 across 16 outcome studies that evaluated the effect of marriage counseling on global relationship satisfaction. An effect size of .71 translates into a treatment success rate of approximately 67 for treated couples versus 34 for untreated control couples. ment for mental and physical health problems. Providing couple therapy for mental and physical health problems is based on research findings indicating that when couples have problems in their relationships, there are...

Sexual Desire

Major factors related to the development of HSDD are marital conflict, current or past depression, religious orthodoxy, and use of oral contraceptives. A number of commonly used medications (e.g., antidepressants, anticonvul-sants, and antihypertensive agents) are also associated with a decrease in sexual desire (for a more complete listing of medications associated with decreased desire, see Finger, Lund, & Slagle, 1997). A number of psychological treatments for low sexual desire have been proposed and evaluated to date. Such treatments include modified versions of standard sex therapy, marital therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and orgasm consistency training. All of these treatments have shown some degree of success, although the characteristics likely to predict who will respond to which treatment have not been fully explored, and overall response in most of these studies is lower than for many other disorders. In addition, a number of medications have been evaluated in the...


The number of remarriages in which children are involved has been growing steadily. Approximately 10 to 15 of all households in the United States are comprised of stepfam-ilies. A review of the stepparent literature presents mixed findings. Some researchers have found no differences between stepparent and intact families, whereas others have found significant differences suggesting that stepparent families have more difficulties and problems. Although an extensive amount of information about divorced families has been obtained in recent years, the efforts to understand the psychological climate of stepparent families have not been as extensive. One recent investigation represents the first attempt to observe actual social interaction in stepparent families. The most consistent findings suggested that the stepfather and biological mother showed more competent parenting when the child was a male than was the case for comparable intact families. Further analyses indicated that, in the...


Because Encopresis is probably caused by the interaction of a number of variables, including physiological predisposition, pain upon defecation, and difficulties in toilet training, treatment will often be multifaceted (Levine & Bakow, 1976). The family as well as the child should be involved in the treatment. Family counseling and therapy directed toward reducing conflict between the parents and child is advised. Family therapy sessions may also be useful in identifying precipitating factors within the child's psychosocial milieu and changing attitudes toward toilet training, if the problem is Primary Encopresis and the child has not been continent for an extended period of time.

Series Foreword

Current Perspectives in Psychology presents the latest discoveries and developments across the spectrum of the psychological and behavioral sciences. The series explores such important topics as learning, intelligence, trauma, stress, brain development and behavior, anxiety, interpersonal relationships, education, child rearing, divorce and marital discord, and child, adolescent, and adult development. Each book focuses on critical advances in research, theory, methods, and applications and is designed to be accessible and informative to nonspecialists and specialists alike.

Conduct Disorder

Ized clinical research trials have identified empirically supported treatments for Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder. Brestan and Eyberg (1998) have identified two parent-training intervention programs with well-established positive effects (Patterson et al., 1992 Webster-Stratton, 1994) and ten other programs as probably efficacious for treating Conduct Disorder. Kazdin (1998 Kazdin & Weisz, 1998) has similarly identified several positive treatment approaches for Conduct Disorder, including Parent Management Training, Functional Family Therapy, Cognitive Problem-Solving Skills Training, and Multisys-temic Therapy. Parent Management Training and Functional Family Therapy are directed at dysfunctional parenting processes and have produced significant improvements in parenting practices and reductions in children's aggressive conduct problem behavior (Alexander & Parsons, 1973 Eyberg, Boggs, & Algina, 1995 Peed, Roberts, & Forehand, 1977 Webster-Stratton, 1994 Wiltz &...

Play Therapy

Recently, play has been extended beyond its traditional role in individual psychotherapy to other treatment modalities. For example, play techniques have been integrated into family therapy (Gil, 1994). Additionally, school-based programs train socially disadvantaged children to engage in symbolic play with the intention of preventing developmental, psychological, and school problems (Hellendoorn et al., 1994). Play has also been integrated into many parent training approaches (Foote, Eyberg, & Schuhmann, 1998 Strayhorn, 1994). Although the goals of parent training are typically to improve childrearing and discipline, empirical findings have revealed that it is more effective to initially establish playful interactions between children and parents than to immediately focus on discipline skills (Foote et al., 1998). Gil, E. (1994). Play in family therapy. New York Guilford Press. See also Family Therapy

Impact on Children

Although some children from single-parent families do quite well psychologically, overall there is an increased risk for psychological and behavioral problems. A review of the literature by Hilton, Desrochers, and Devall (2001) shows that single-parent children, as compared to intact families, tend to have lower levels of psychological well-being (Amato & Keith, 1991) internalizing problems such as anxiety, depression, withdrawal, and inhibition (Holden, 1997) externalizing problems such as noncompliance, acting out, and aggression (Holden, 1997) school performance deficits (Acock & Demo, 1994) and health problems (Dawson, 1991). Hetherington, Cox, and Cox (1978) also found that many of these problems surface during the first year following divorce (e.g., children tend to be more aggressive, oppositional, distractible, and demanding).

Reflective Listening

The importance of empathic listening has been written about in many approaches to psychotherapy including client-centered, self psychology, psychoanalysis, Gestalt, existential, focusing-oriented, pretherapy, child therapy, marital and couple therapy, disaster-recovery therapy, and clinical supervision. Some emphasize the importance of nonverbal components of empathy. Empathy shares aspects of mental discipline with meditation. Empathic ability is not strongly associated with academic or diagnostic proficiency.

Double Bind

The original clinical studies leading to the double bind concept were conducted in Palo Alto, California, in the 1950s and 1960s by Gregory Bateson, Don D. Jackson, Jay Haley, and John H. Weakland (1956), a group of clinicians and scholars who collectively introduced a communication theory approach to the mental health field through pioneering contributions to the development of family therapy. Their work emphasized that there are, within families as within the individual's internal environment, homeostatic or stability-making processes that regulate their functioning and contribute to their survival. Within families, communication serves this function. See also Family Therapy Schizophrenia

Self Autonomy

The new family therapist A glossary of terms. American Journal of Family Therapy, 4(1), 15-30. Keeney, B. P. (1983). Aesthetic of change. New York Guilford Press. Keeney, B. O., & Ross, J. M. (1983). Cybernetics of brief family therapy. Journal ofMarital and Family Therapy, 9(4), 375-382. Keeney, B. P., & Thomas, F. (1986). Cybernetic foundations of family therapy. In F. P. Piercy & D. H. Sprenkle (Eds.), Family therapy sourcebook (pp. 262-287). New York Guilford Press. Laszlo, E. (1980). The systems of the world. New York Braziller. Speer, D. (1970). Family systems morphostasis and morphogenesis, or is homeostasis enough Family Process, 9(1), 259-278.

Drug Rehabilitation

Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) for adolescents is an outpatient family-based treatment for teenagers. In this approach, adolescent drug use is believed to be influenced by factors related to the individual, the family, the peer group, and the larger community. Treatment includes both individual and family sessions and may occur in the clinic, the patient's home, or in the community (e.g., court, school). Both the adolescent drug user and his or her family members are encouraged to take an active role in achieving drug abstinence.


The concept of cybernetics was originally adapted from biology, computers, communication theory, and mathematics and applied to human social systems. In psychology, it first was adopted by family therapists. Cybernetics and cybernetic systems have not been fully applied to personality theories. Cybernetics is primarily concerned with understanding and managing the organization of systems (Keeney & Thomas, 1986, p. 263). Emphasis is placed on discerning and managing specific patterns of the organization of a social system. Cybernetics is concerned with recursive feedback loops or ongoing patterns that connect within a system. The focus is on the relationships between elements within the system. Cybernetic systems are therefore patterns of organization that maintain stability through processes of change (Keeney & Ross, 1983, p. 51).

Peer Modeling

To support people in learning skills, video is widely used to provide demonstrations of effective behavior by a like-person in a like-situation. The range of professional training applications go from divorce mediation to flying an airplane. Other productive areas are social skills, daily living, and sport. The potential for appropriately designed modeling videos for diverse populations is promising but underdeveloped.

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