Sexual Health

The Impact of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Unplanned Pregnancy

Upon completion of this chapter, the student will be able to identify and discuss basic facts concerning the impact of sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancy. Half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended that is, at the time of conception the pregnancy was not planned or not wanted. Nearly half of all unintended pregnancies end in abortion. The rates remain highest among teenagers, women aged 40 years or older, and low-income African American women. Approximately 1...

Sexual Health and Responsibility Program SHARP

Upon completion of this chapter, the student will be able to identify and discuss basic facts concerning the Sexual Health and Responsibility Program (SHARP) mission, vision, goals, products, and services. The Sexual Health and Responsibility Program (SHARP) is one of the teams within the Directorate of Health Promotion and Population Health of the Navy Environmental Health Center. Provide Department of Navy (DoN) members and family members with health information, education, and behavior...

What services are available through the Navy

BUMED Instruction 6300.9 directs Naval medical facilities, including facilities on board naval vessels, to provide (or authorizes them to provide referral to) family planning services. Also, MANMED Article 15-76 provides annual health maintenance examination requirements for all active duty women which includes family planning, contraceptive counseling, and STD prevention counseling. Counseling should include information on availability and effectiveness of birth control methods (including...

SHARP Fact Fact Sheets

Upon completion of this chapter, the student will be able to identify and discuss basic facts concerning - pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases - Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Bacterial Vaginosis, Trichomoniasis, Genital Herpes, Human Papillomavirus, and Hepatitis B - safer options to reduce risk, including male and female condoms, and - talking to teens about sexual responsibility, and family planning. The following pages in this chapter are SHARP FACTS which are 1 page (double sided)...

Risk Assessment and Risk Reduction Counseling Guidance and Training for Health Care Providers

Upon completion of this chapter, the student will be able to identify and discuss basic facts concerning the purpose and content of sexual risk assessment and risk reduction counseling by health care providers. A Gallop Organization poll commissioned by ASHA in 1995, found that over half of adults and over one-third of teens said their health care providers spend no time at all'' discussing STDs with them. Kaiser Family Foundation Glamour survey conducted in 1997 found that STDs are rarely...

What are STDs

Sexually transmitted diseases, or STDs, are diseases you can get by having sex - vaginal, oral, or anal - with someone who is already infected. STDs are caused by bacteria or viruses that are spread through blood, semen and vaginal fluids. Some STDs, like herpes and genital warts, are also spread simply by touching infected skin. If a woman is pregnant and has an STD, she and her developing baby may both be affected. Anyone who is sexually active can get an STD. Globally, an estimated 333...

Dangerous and Deadly Consequences

Most Americans are aware of HIV infection and AIDS, the most deadly of all STDs. But, for much of society, the other serious risks related to unsafe sexual behaviors may have been forgotten. There are over 20 diseases that are transmitted sexually. Many have serious and costly consequences. Some of the most common and serious STDs include Chlamydia An estimated 3,000,000 new cases each year. An estimated 1 in 10 of all American adolescent females are infected. Most infected females don't know...

How can I protect myself from STDs

Refraining from having sexual intercourse with an infected partner is the best way to prevent transmission of HIV and other STDs. People can choose to not have sex. People can also decide to wait, or delay sex, until a later time in their life. They may choose to have personal relationships that do not involve sex. Choose Outer-course vs. Intercourse Outer-course is non-penetrative contact, such as massaging, hugging, and kissing. Non-penetrative contact vs. intercourse can eliminate...

How common are STDs among pregnant women in the US

Some STDs, such as genital herpes and bacterial vaginosis, are quite common among pregnant women in this country. Other STDs, notably HIV and syphilis, are much less common in pregnant women. The table below shows the estimated number of pregnant women in the U.S., per year with specific STDs.

How can pregnant women protect themselves against infection

Although a woman may be monogamous during her pregnancy, she can remain at risk of STDs if her partner is not monogamous. For this reason, she may want to consider consistent and correct use of latex condoms for every act of intercourse. Condoms can be expected to provide different levels of risk reduction for different STDs. There is no one definitive study about condom effectiveness for all STDs. Several studies have demonstrated that condoms can reduce the risk of acquiring chlamydia,...

What is genital herpes

Herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). HSV-type 1 commonly causes fever blisters on the mouth or face (oral herpes), while HSV-type 2 typically affects the genital area (genital herpes). However, both viral types can cause either genital or oral infections. Most of the time, HSV-1 and HSV-2 are inactive, or silent, and cause no symptoms, but some infected people have outbreaks of blisters and ulcers. Once infected with HSV, people remain...

Is genital herpes serious

HSV-2 usually produces mild symptoms, and most people with HSV-2 infection have no recognized symptoms. However, HSV-2 can cause recurrent painful genital ulcers in many adults, and the infection can be severe in people with suppressed immune systems. Regardless of severity of symptoms, genital herpes frequently causes psychological distress among people who know they are infected. In addition, HSV-2 can cause potentially fatal infections in infants if the mother is shedding virus at the time...

How can people protect themselves against infection

When a person has sex with someone whose STD status is unknown, a latex condom put on before beginning sex and worn until the penis is withdrawn can reduce the risk of infection. However, condoms do not provide complete protection, because a herpes lesion may not be covered by the condom and viral shedding may occur. If you or your partner has genital herpes, it is best to abstain from sex when symptoms are present, and to use latex condoms between outbreaks. Washing the genitals, urinating, or...

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Including HIV

Sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV Latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, are highly effective in preventing transmission of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. In addition, correct and consistent use of latex condoms can reduce the risk of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including discharge and genital ulcer diseases. While the effect of condoms in preventing human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is unknown, condom use has been associated with a lower rate of...

Genital Ulcer Diseases and Human Papillomavirus

Genital ulcer diseases and HPV infections Genital ulcer diseases and HPV infections can occur in both male or female genital areas that are covered or protected by a latex condom, as well as in areas that are not covered. Correct and consistent use of latex condoms can reduce the risk of genital herpes, syphilis, and chancroid only when the infected area or site of potential exposure is protected. While the effect of condoms in preventing human papillomavirus infection is unknown, condom use...

Sharp Facts Oral Sex What are the Risks

Syphilis can be transmitted easily through oral sex if sores or mucous patches are present. Gonorrhea can be transmitted moderately easy through oral sex. Transmission usually to and from the throat during penile-oral contact. Vaginal-oral transmission is less likely. Herpes can be easily transmitted between the genitals and the mouth when sores are present, and can even be transmitted if no sores are present. Other STDs which scientists have documented have also been transmitted through oral...

Reducing the Risk of HIV Transmission Through Oral

The consequences of HIV infection are life-long, life-threatening, and extremely serious. Herpes and Human Papilloma Virus infections are treatable but not curable. Abstaining from oral, anal, and vaginal sex all together or having sex only with a mutually monogamous, uninfected partner are the only ways that individuals can be completely protected from the sexual transmission of HIV and other STDs. People who decide they will have oral sex can lower their risk of getting HIV or other STDs by...

Which of my partners need to know about this

For each disease, there is a recommended contact tracing period. Anyone you have had sex with during the contact 60 days (or most recent partner if > 60 days) 60 days (or most recent partner if > 60 days) within 14 days after the most recent sexual contact No contact time period specified. Minimally, current sexual partners, needle-sharing partners and nonsexual household contacts should be offered hepatitis B vaccine. Long-term, steady sex partners should be informed of the low but present...

How do you get HPV or genital warts

Genital HPV and genital warts are usually spread by direct, skin-to-skin contact during vaginal, anal or (rarely) oral sex with someone who has this infection. Genital warts are growths or bumps that appear on the vulva, in or around the vagina or anus, on the cervix, or on the penis, scrotum, or groin. They may be raised or flat, single or multiple, small or large. Warts may appear within several weeks after sex with a person who has HPV or they may take months or years to appear or they may...

Can I get HIV from oral sex

Yes, it is possible for you to become infected with HIV through performing oral sex. There have been a few cases of HIV transmission from performing oral sex on a person infected with HIV. Blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid, and vaginal fluid all may contain the virus. Cells in the mucous lining of the mouth may carry HIV into the lymph nodes or the bloodstream. The risk increases if you have cuts or sores around or in your mouth or throat if your partner ejaculates in your mouth or if your...

How can I avoid contracting syphilis

Two people who know they are not infected and who have no other sex partners besides each other cannot contract syphilis. When a person has sex with a person whose STD status is unknown, a latex condom put on before beginning sex and worn until the penis may reduce the risk infection. Only lab tests can confirm someone has syphilis. Because syphilis sores can be hidden in the vagina, rectum, or mouth, it is not obvious by looking to determine whether a partner has syphilis. Washing the...

How can I protect myself from contracting hepatitis B

Not having sex is the most effective way to prevent getting an infection. Monogamy is also safe two people who only have sex with each other are safe if neither partner is infected. People who choose to have sex outside a monogamous relationship but don't know whether their partners carry this virus can protect themselves by receiving the vaccine series. Condoms may also be effective in preventing hepatitis B transmission. Washing the genitals, urinating, or douching after sex does not prevent...

Why should my sexual partner be told that I have a sexually transmitted disease

If you have a sexually transmitted disease, any or all of the people you had sex with (vaginal, oral, or anal sex) may also be infected with the disease. But they may not even know they are infected. By notifying them, you can help ensure they receive the medical treatment they need. Telling your partner shows you respect and care about them. Your honesty may build trust and may encourage your partner to share sexual health information with you. Telling your partner may also prevent future...

How are genital warts treated

Genital warts caused by HPV can be treated. Removing or treating these may reduce - but probably not eliminate -the chances an infected person may pass the infection to their sexual partner. There are several treatments for genital warts. The goal of treatment is to remove visible genital warts to get rid of annoying symptoms. It may take a few treatments to clear genital warts, and for some people, it may take many treatments. None of the treatments for genital warts is a cure for HPV. The...

How do I talk to my teen about sexual responsibility

The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy offers these ideas for parents when discussing sexual responsibility with their children. 1. Be clear about your own sexual values and attitudes. Communicating with your children about sex, love, and relationships is often more successful when you are certain in your own mind about these issues. To help clarify your attitudes and values, think about the following kinds of questions What do you really think about school-aged teenagers being...

How can my partners be given the information they need

There are a few ways to go about this. You might choose a different approach for each of partner, depending on your relationships and what you feel will work best for you and for them. Your health care professional will discuss each of these with you and help you formulate a plan. - Option 1, Client referral. You inform your partner that you have the disease and they may also have it. Use the name of the disease, and emphasize that it is very important they see a doctor promptly, even if they...

What are the symptoms and complications of gonorrhea

When initially infected, about 50 of men have some signs or symptoms. Symptoms and signs include a burning sensation when urinating and a yellowish white discharge from the penis. Sometimes men with gonorrhea get painful or swollen testicles. In men, gonorrhea can cause epididymitis, a painful condition of the testicles that can sometimes lead to infertility if left untreated. Without prompt treatment, gonorrhea can also affect the prostate and can lead to scarring inside the urethra, making...

Discharge Diseases Including Gonorrhea Chlamydia and Trichomoniasis

Latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, can reduce the risk of transmission of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis. Gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis are termed discharge diseases because they are sexually transmitted by genital secretions, such as semen or vaginal fluids. HIV is also transmitted by genital secretions. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that latex condoms provide an essentially impermeable barrier to particles the size of STD pathogens. Theoretical...

How can you avoid getting HPV or genital warts

Ways that lower your risk of getting other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may also work to lower your risk of getting HPV or genital warts Abstain from sex with a person who has visible warts (although some infected people may not have visible warts but can still transmit the infection). Have sex with only one other uninfected person who has sex only with you (long-term mutual monogamy). Two people who are not infected cannot spread the infection to each other (although it's difficult to...