Mental Health

Special Headache Populations

There is now a sizable body of research attesting to the efficacy of thermal biofeedback with pediatric migraine. In addition, headaches in the elderly can also be effectively treated with biofeedback and relaxation techniques, as can those individuals who consume excessive levels of medication. A number of investigators have demonstrated that a combination treatment including relaxation therapy and biofeedback is efficacious for treating headaches during pregnancy. Because pregnant women are...

Psychoendocrinology

Hormones are substances, such as steroids and peptides, synthesized and released from endocrine glands, cell clusters, or specialized cells and spread over the brain, lungs, or gastrointestinal tract. Several of these hormones exist both in the brain and peripheral organs, where they act as an endocrine or paracrine messenger, or even as a neuro-transmitter. Most endocrine activities vary with sex and age, and many show pronounced variations over the course of the month or even the day....

Drug Rehabilitation

In 2000, the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse estimated that approximately 14 million Americans, or 6.3 of the population, used an illicit drug during the previous month (Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2001). Of those 14 million people, approximately 4.3 million met the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnostic criteria for...

Age Differences

Behavioral changes with age are as striking as changes in physical appearance. Both training and altered structures contribute to these psychological differences. Differences that occur throughout the life span are mainly studied by cross-sectional and longitudinal methods. Age differences in intelligence have been extensively studied. Mental age (MA) as measured by standard intelligence tests increases with chronological age (CA), and because of the way age scales are constructed, the relation...

Definitions of Culture

As with many complex concepts long studied by psychologists, such as personality, intelligence, and abnormal behavior, no one definition of culture is widely accepted. Psychologists have not spent much effort developing definitions of culture but have benefited from the efforts of their colleagues in anthropology. Alfred Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn, in Culture A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions, concluded by suggesting that many definitions contained patterns, explicit and implicit,...

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy

Modern cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) originated in 1955 with Albert Ellis's Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). Following the lead of many philosophers, ancient and modern, CBT and REBT take a constructivist view that people largely make themselves disturbed and integrate this with the behaviorist views of John D. Watson and B. F. Skinner. According to the theories of REBT and CBT, human disturbances stem from (1) a strong tendency, both innate and acquired, for people to act both...

Intellectual Deviates

The mentally retarded and the gifted represent the lower and upper extremes of the distribution of intelligence. Because the distribution is continuous, there is no sharp separation between these groups and the norm. In terms of intelligence test performance, mental retardation is customarily identified with IQs below 70, representing about 2-3 of the general population. Decisions regarding the disposition and treatment of individual cases are based not only on the IQ but also on a...

Hedonic or Pleasure Theories of Motivation

Hedonic or pleasure theories form the largest category of theories of motivation. In one form or another, theories in this group emphasize the guiding role of pleasure in the organization of activity. Anumber of subclassifications within this category are possible. Perhaps the largest subgroup of hedonic theories consists of those that emphasize the organism's efforts toward tension reduction. Such theories emphasize the disquieting state of affairs caused by internal tension and the pleasure...

Early Childhood Development

Childhood is a culturally defined period in human development between infancy and adulthood, and, in historical perspective, it is a relatively recent social construction. Only in the past 400 years or so has the idea of childhood been a part of Western culture, with the recognition of this special class of people and special phase in the growth of each individual (French historian Philippe Aries analyzes the emergence of these ideas in Centuries of Childhood). Early childhood, as a special and...

Theories

There are two major theoretical issues Why is the ego (or self) as stable as it is How and why does it manage to change at all The theories of ego stability are all variations of H. S. Sullivan's anxiety-gating theory. What Sullivan calls the self-system acts as a kind of filter, template, or frame of reference for one's perception and conception of the interpersonal world. Any observations not consonant with one's current frame of reference cause anxiety. However, the main purpose of the...

Perfectionism In Gifted Adolescents

While many gifted students find special programs for their academic achievements challenging, some gifted students are overwhelmed by the simplest of academic demands. These gifted students are often viewed as lazy. While this label may occur as early as junior high school, problems with academics may not appear until high school or even college. There are multiple reasons for being seen as lazy, including learning disabilities, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, drugs, psychosis, a...

Rehabilitation Psychology

Rehabilitation psychology is a specialty area of practice within the broad field of psychology. Rehabilitation psychology is the application of psychological knowledge and understanding on behalf of individuals with disabilities and society through such activities as research, clinical practice, teaching, public education, development of social policy, and advocacy. Professionals who provide rehabilitation psychology services are called rehabilitation psychologists. Rehabilitation psychologists...

Measurement of Working Memory and Its Role in Complex Cognition

The capacity of short-term memory has traditionally been assessed with a simple span task that requires participants to repeat back a list of digits or words in correct sequence. In contrast to such storage-oriented measures, currently used measures of working memory capacity require participants to perform a dual task, namely the simultaneous processing of some information and remembering of to-be-recalled items. The best-known measure of this kind is the reading span test (Daneman &...

Managed Mental Health Care

Managed care is any health care delivery method in which an entity other than the health care provider actively manages both financial and medical aspects of health care. It includes a wide variety of techniques, products, and services that integrate the financing and the delivery of health care. Based on the premise that providers alter practice in response to financial incentives, managed care was created to control the costs, use, and quality of health care by increasing provider...

Intervention Strategies Service Delivery and Treatment Fidelity

Specific MST interventions include strategies from pragmatic family therapies, behavioral parent training, social learning contingency management approaches, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Interventions are theory-based, have empirical support, and are delivered strategically and flexibly throughout the treatment process. MST interventions often have the following goals (1) to reduce unproductive caregiver-youth conflict (2) to improve caregiver monitoring, limit setting, and family...

Schools Of Professional Psychology

Most psychologists are educated in academic departments of psychology. Even those entering such professional fields as clinical or counseling psychology usually pursue their graduate studies in departmental programs comparable in size and administrative structure to programs in experimental, developmental, or social psychology. Increasing numbers of psychologists preparing for careers in practice, however, are educated in schools of professional psychology administratively comparable to schools...

Abnormality

From time immemorial, individuals have recognized a small minority of members of their societies as psychologically abnormal. The research of Jane Murphy (1976) further demonstrates that people in non-Western cultures, such as the Yorubas of Nigeria and the Yupic-speaking Eskimos of Alaska, readily recognize certain behaviors as abnormal. Moreover, many of these behaviors, such as talking to oneself, are similar to those regarded as abnormal in Western society. Murphy's findings suggest that...

Antidepressant Medications

Medications effective in reducing the symptoms of major depression are called antidepressants. The Food and Drug Administration requires controlled, double-blind studies showing safety and efficacy before approving an antidepres-sant medication to be available in the United States. Major Depressive Disorder is characterized by sadness and an inability to experience pleasure. Associated symptoms include decreased self-esteem, feelings of hopelessness and worthlessness, excessive guilt, and...

Conclusion

The differences in prevalence rates and expression of major depression suggest that a person's culture functions as a factor that influences the expression and meaning of major depression. Understanding the meanings attached to concepts such as emotional distress, mind-body dualism, and intragroup categories of illness is likely to further our knowledge and understanding of major depression. Furthermore, demographic variables such as socioeconomic status, acculturation, and language use, for...

Depression And Bipolar Support Alliance

The Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance (DBSA) is the largest patient-directed, illness-specific organization in the United States. Incorporated in 1985 and headquartered in Chicago, DBSA has a nationwide grassroots network of chapters and support groups. It is governed by a 15-member board of directors and guided by a 65-member scientific advisory board comprised of the leading researchers and clinicians in the field of mood disorders. The organization does not endorse or recommend the use...

Dysthymic Disorder

Dysthymic Disorder is a form of mood disorder that is characterized by mild, chronic depression. The current diagnostic criteria for dysthymia require chronic depressed mood (i.e., depressed most of the day, for more days than not, for at least 2 years). In addition, the individual must experience at least two of the following six depressive symptoms low self-esteem, feelings of hopelessness, low energy or fatigue, difficulty concentrating or making decisions, sleep disturbance (insomnia or...

Efficacy Research on Psychotherapy

Comprehensive reviews have been undertaken of psycho-therapies with demonstrated efficacy in controlled studies (e.g., Chambless et al., 1998 Nathan & Gorman, 1998 Weissman, Markowitz, & Klerman, 2000). Chambless and Ollendick (2001) recently completed the most extensive review of the efforts of eight work groups (from the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada) focused on identifying psychotherapies with existing efficacy data or evidence-based treatments (EBT). Although the criteria used...

Possible Mechanisms for Blunted GH Secretion to GH Secretagogues in Anxiety and Mood Disorders

Blunted GH responses to GH secretagogues, such as cloni-dine, desipramine, the insulin tolerance test, and others, were thought to detect down-regulation of postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors following excessive central noradrenaline (NA) activity in major depressive disorder (Coplan et al., 1995 Siever et al., 1982). That GH responses are blunted in response to both clonidine and growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) in Panic Disorder (PD) refuted the view that reduced GH response to clonidine...

Nocturnal Growth Hormone Secretion

Sleep onset represents a highly evolved, dynamic biological process, involving the reduction and ultimate cessation of noradrenergic and serotonergic neuronal activity, the onset of cholinergic bursts of firing from pontine nuclei and the increased secretion of GH primarily through muscarinic inhibition of SOM, the GH secretagogue suppressant. During the early phases of sleep, increases of spontaneous GH secretion have been associated with slow wave (delta) sleep, the former subsiding several...

Major Depressive Disorder

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is characterized by depressed mood or a lack of interest or pleasure in once-enjoyable activities, and associated symptoms (e.g., sleep disturbance, appetite weight disturbance, difficulty concentrating, worthlessness or exaggerated guilt). To receive a diagnosis of MDD, at least five symptoms must be present most of the day, nearly every day, for at least 2 weeks (American Psychiatric Association ApA , 1994). The lifetime and 12-month prevalence of MDD is higher...

References

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC Brosse, A. L., Craighead, L. W., & Craighead, W. E. (2002). Relapse and recurrence of Major Depressive Disorder A decade later. Manuscript submitted for publication. Frank, E., Prien, R. F., Jarrett, R. B., Keller, M. B., Kupfer, D. J., Lavori, P. W., Rush, A. J., & Weissman, M. M. (1991). Conceptualization and rationale for consensus definitions of terms in Major...

Research on Psychotherapy

Although many are skeptical of psychotherapy as a treatment, it has been investigated in research studies more than any other medical procedure, with well over 1,000 studies of psychotherapy performed to date. Extensive reviews of the research literature have concluded that, broadly speaking, psychotherapy works. Research is now directed toward the more specific question of finding out which type of psychotherapy procedure works best with identified types of patient problems or disorders, and...

Tertiary Prevention

The concept of tertiary prevention arises from the public health preventive services model (Commission on Chronic Illness, 1957 Last, 1992). In this model, preventive services are categorized into primary, secondary, or tertiary interventions. The goal of primary prevention is to decrease the prevalence of disease via reduction in its rate of occurrence. Primary prevention is therefore directed at eliminating eti-ologic factors, thereby reducing the incidence of the disease or eradicating it...

Psychosurgery

Psychosurgery, by definition, implies the destruction of brain tissue for the relief of severe, persistent, and debilitating psychiatric symptomatology. Its use can be traced back with early archeological evidence of trepanation in 2000 b.c. (Valenstein, 1980). However, the first widespread application of psychosurgical procedures to psychiatric patients began in the late 1930s, reached its peak in the 1960s, and began to decline in the 1970s (Weingarten & cummings, 2001). In the first half...

The Dropout Phenomenon

Over 50 of the individuals who begin TM stop practicing after 1 year of training (Zuroff & Schwarz, 1980). There are several explanations for this high dropout rate. Otis (1974) noted that a significantly high percentage of neurotic individuals are attracted to TM. They appear to have high ex pectations and are looking for a quick solution to complicated psychological problems. When TM does not provide them with the answers, they tend to stop practicing it. Nystul and Garde (1979) also found...

Somatopsychics Definition

The term somatopsychics is derived from the Greek terms soma, meaning body, and psyche, which has become an English term as well. Somatopsychics refers to psychological effects engendered by somatic conditions. Such psychological states range from normal, to mild mood alterations (like irritability due to low blood sugar), to major psychiatric conditions. Somatopsychics needs to be contrasted with psychoso-matics. Psychosomatic mechanisms operate when psychological conditions produce physical...

Regulation of Glucocorticoid Secretion

The main driving force behind glucocorticoid secretion is corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) acting in synergy with arginine-vasopressin (AVP), both of which are primarily released from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. The CRH stimulates the corticotroph cells in the anterior pituitary to secrete corticotropin (ACTH), which, in turn, influences the adrenal cortex. Three separate regulatory forces are involved in the secretion of gluco-corticoids under physiological...

AMPA Receptors in Disease

Arecently proposed model of glutamate excitotoxicity highlights the importance of molecular diversity of AMPA subunit expression. It hypothesizes that cells are vulnerable to injury from excessive Ca++ influx after any of a number primary insults affecting the expression of edited GluR2 subunits (such as ischemia, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, or epilepsy). AMPA receptor expression is also altered under conditions of stress in the hippocampus. Perhaps a peak in the expression of AMPA receptors at 20...

Human Studies of Behavioral Effects of Androgens and Estrogens

In people, as in other species, behavior is affected by hormones in two ways organizational changes to the brain during early development and activation of brain systems later in life. Organizational effects of sex hormones occur during prenatal development. Sex differences in hormone concentrations are greatest during prenatal weeks 8 to 24, following the development of the genitalia. Because prenatal hormones cannot be manipulated, knowledge about human behavioral effects of hormones comes...

Suggested Reading

A., Cai, N., Bliven, T., Juhasz, M., Conner, J. M., Acheson, A. L., et al. (1997). Anterograde transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its role in the brain. Nature, 389, 856-860. Duman, R. S., Heninger, G. R., & Nestler, E. J. (1997). Amolecular and cellular theory of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 597-606. Gaiddon, C., Loeffler, J. P., & Larmet, Y. (1996). Brain-derived neu-rotrophic factor stimulates AP-1 and cyclic AMP-responsive element dependent...

Cognitive Neuroscience Of Learning And Memory

Cognitive neuroscience approaches, with their focus on relating neural substrates to cognitive functions, have advanced our understanding of the neural basis of learning and memory. In turn, our understanding of the neural basis has informed the way we think about the functional organization of memory systems. One of the most prominent themes in cognitive neuroscience has been trying to understand which kinds of learning and memory are spared, and which are impaired, with damage to the...

Computed Axial Tomography Cat Scan

Imaging technology has been very useful in the development of the fields of psychiatry and neuroscience. The past two decades have seen an explosion of this technology, so that we now have a window into the brain and other bodily organs. Much of the early work in this area began with computed tomography (CT), which provided important information about the structure of the brain in various neu-ropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and affective disorders. Although magnetic resonance...

Excitatory And Inhibitory Synapses

Chemical synapses that is, synapses that use a chemical neurotransmitter to transfer information from one neuron to another can be excitatory or inhibitory, depending on their effect on the postsynaptic neuron. Synapses releasing a neurotransmitter that brings the membrane potential of the postsynaptic neuron toward the threshold for generating action potentials are said to be excitatory. Alternatively, inhibitory synapses drive the membrane potential of the postsynaptic neuron away from the...

Knockouts Transgenics and Memory

The first knockout transgenic study of learning and memory analyzed mice with a targeted mutation of the a isoform of CaMKII (Grant & Silva, 1994) and showed that this ki-nase mediates the strengthening synapses, a process critical for learning. Many studies since then have identified more than 100 other molecules required for synaptic func tion and learning. These molecules include members of all of the principal signaling pathways known, including cAMP, PKC, Ras Raf MAPK, and so on. These...

Growth Hormone and Neurogenesis

GH also appears to play an important role in the newly described phenomenon termed neurogenesis, or new neuronal division in the CNS. A major mediator of the trophic effects of GH throughout the body is a mediating hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), with increased gene expression of IGF-I through GH exposure (Pankov, 1999). It has been recently demonstrated that IGF-I has a clear stimulatory effect on both cell proliferation and neurogen-esis in the rodent hippocampus (Anderson,...

Anatomy of the Hippocampus

From the perspective of its role in cognition and memory, the hippocampal system is last in a long succession of stages of cortical representation (Van Hoesen, 1982). Neo-cortical areas that provide information to the hippocampal system include only the highest stages of each neocortical sensory system, plus multimodal and limbic cortical areas and the olfactory cortex. These inputs arrive in three main cortical subdivisions of the parahippocampal region, composed of the perirhinal,...

Information Encoded By Hippocampal Neurons

Complementary evidence on the nature of memory processing accomplished by the hippocampus has been derived from studies of the firing patterns of hippocampal neurons in behaving animals. Consistent with the view that the hippocampus is the ultimate stage of hierarchical processing, the functional correlates of hippocampal cells are supramodal in that they appear to encode the abstract stimulus configurations that are independent of any particular sensory input. Most prominent among the...

Importance of Controlling Glucose Homeostasis

In aged rats and humans, impaired glucose regulation has been correlated with poor memory performance. Aged (22 to 24 months) and young (3 months) rats were assessed in a battery of behavioral tests that included tasks of learning and place navigation. Following evaluation all animals were analyzed for their local glucose utilization. The decline in performance correlated significantly with the decrement in regional glucose utilization (Gage, Kelly, & Bjork-lund, 1984). Moreover, performance...

Evidence for and Against the Limbic System Construct

Extensive research suggests that limbic structures are important in emotional behavior. What is uncertain is the extent to which limbic regions and associated brain structures alone are critical in emotional regulation and whether Figure 2. Maclean's subdivisions of the limbic system. the limbic system functions as a unified network. Much of the clinical evidence for the unified network concept has come from studies of psychomotor seizures (Jasper, 1964), although recent functional imaging...

Distribution and Physiological Function of the Serotonergic Neuron

In the CNS, serotonergic neurons are limited to a group of brain-stem reticular formation nuclei, the raphe nuclei. Dahlstrom and Fuxe (1964) originally described nine sero-tonergic cell groups, which they named B1 through B9. Most of these groups are associated with the raphe nuclei and the reticular region of the lower brain stem from which they project rostro-caudally, and thus to virtually all areas of the CNS receive serotonergic inputs. The serotonergic neurons in the midbrain and pontine...

Spatial Memory

Almost every action takes place in space and requires some form of spatial memory. In addition, spatial memory can be studied easily in animals, which often have outstanding spatial capabilities. Consider, for instance, the memory capabilities of food-storing birds. During autumn, many birds store seeds that they retrieve later on (often several months after the storing episode), when the environment does not provide the necessary amount of fresh food. Thus an...

Stress Response

There are three current stress model paradigms environmental, psychological, and biological. Regardless of its etiology, stress exerts a powerful influence on the physiology of every bodily system via its impact on both the cognitive and physiological processes of the central nervous system (CNS). In a normal and beneficial stress response, the challenge is resolved or adapted to, and functioning returns to an appropriate base level. When these responses do not maintain homeostasis and...

Structural Plasticity And Memory

Several structural changes in the basic-wiring diagram of the brain have been related to memory storage. These include alterations in the number and pattern of synaptic connections (Moser, 1999), translocation of polyribosomal aggregates to the synaptic spines (Weiler, Hawrylak, & Gree-nough, 1995), and complex changes in the shape and size of synaptic contact zone (Rusakov et al., 1997). The search for neuronal proteins whose expression correlates with synap-tic remodeling has led to the...

Old and New Forms of Racism

By the early 1970s researchers had discerned a notable change in racial attitudes in the United States and other Western countries. Survey studies were indicating that blunt, hostile, segregationist, and White supremacist beliefs were less openly acceptable to members of the White majority. A distinction began to be made between old-fashioned racism, which is blunt, hostile, segregationist, and supremacist, and modern or symbolic racism, which in contrast is subtle and covert and,...

Taste Perception

Taste is one of five senses that may be involved in sensory evaluation, each sense being associated with a different type of receptor. The sense of taste is important because of its role in food recognition, selection, and acceptance. The final criteria by which food is judged and wins acceptance relate to sensory properties How does it look How does it taste How does it smell Individuals use their senses to determine whether a product is edible and whether it pleases them. The first is a...

Sexual Intercourse Human

Human sexual intercourse, or coitus, is one of the most common sexual outlets among adults. Although it is usually considered in the context of marriage, premarital and extramarital intercourse are also widely practiced. Adolescents appear to be engaging in sexual intercourse more frequently than in the past. Although cultures differ widely in their acceptance of premarital intercourse, U.S. customs have been traditionally more restrictive than most. Sexual intercourse generally refers to...

Sexual Dysfunction

Diseases of the neurological, vascular, and endocrine systems (e.g., diabetes, cancer, multiple sclerosis) can impair virtually any stage of the sexual response. Medications used to treat depression, high blood pressure, psychiatric disorders, and cancer, as well as numerous recreational drugs (e.g., barbiturates, narcotics, alcohol abuse, tobacco smoking) can interfere with sexual desire, arousal, and orgasm. Psychological factors contributing to impaired sexual function most commonly include...

The Primary Psychopath

A thoughtful and influential essay on the clinical characteristics of the psychopathic personality, The Mask of Sanity, was published in 1941 by psychiatrist Hervey Cleckley. Cleckley's psychopath, while not deeply vicious, carries disaster lightly in each hand. He may be intelligent and often displays great charm, enhanced undoubtedly by his lack of nervousness or other neurotic manifestations. Yet he is fundamentally unreliable, has a remarkable disregard for truth, and seems incapable of...

The Twelve Steps

We admitted we were powerless over alcohol that our lives had become unmanageable. 2. We came to believe that a Power greater than ourselves could restore us to sanity. 3. We made a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care of God as we understood Him. 4. We made a searching and fearless moral inventory of ourselves. 5. We admitted to God, ourselves and another human being the exact nature of our wrongs. 6. We were entirely ready to have God remove all these defects of character....

Countertransference

Countertransference refers to feelings that arise in the therapist in response to the patient during the course of the patient's treatment. In its narrowest sense, the term countertransference is defined as the therapist's transferential reactions to the patient. Like all transferential reactions, countertransference involves a displacement onto the patient of feelings, beliefs, or impulses that were experienced previously by the therapist toward another person or persons. The term...

Nonassociative Learning

From a biological viewpoint, learning is the process of acquiring new knowledge about the environment and the self necessary for survival of the species. Two major classes of learning can be distinguished nonassociative and associative. In nonassociative learning, the subject learns about a stimulus by being repeatedly exposed to it. Three forms of nonassociative learning are distinguished habituation, dishabituation, and sensitization. Habituation consists in a reduced response upon repeated...

Primary Motor Cortex And Primary Somatic Sensory Cortex

The primary motor cortex and the primary somatic sensory cortex represent two principal components of sensory motor integration implemented in the brain. The fundamental function of motor cortex is to control voluntary move ments, whereas somatic sensory cortex receives and analyzes tactile, joint, and muscle sensory inputs, sometimes in relation to voluntary movement. From classical perspectives, motor cortex functions as the final cortical output for already processed movement commands,...

Sympathetic Nervous System

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of two branches of the autonomic nervous system, which controls the function of organs and glands in the body (called the efferent portion) and senses changes in these organ systems (the afferent portion) the other autonomic branch is the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). The neurons that comprise the efferent SNS arise from the thoracic and lumbar portions of the spinal cord (i.e., the middle of the cord). Thus, this system is sometimes referred...

Sleeper Effect

A sleeper effect in persuasion is a delayed increase in the impact of a persuasive message. In other words, a sleeper effect occurs when a communication shows no immediate persuasive effects, but, after a period of time, the recipient of the communication becomes more favorable toward the position advocated by the message. As a pattern of data, the sleeper effect is the opposite of the typical finding that induced opinion change dissipates over time. The term sleeper effect was first used by...

Career Defined

In order to understand the term career development, it is useful to consider the term career. Jobs and occupations are part of one's career but are not synonymous with this concept. Jobs and occupations describe groups of tasks or work performances that occur within a workplace and that constitute paid positions that can be identified, applied for, and achieved. But the term career means more than work performance. Among the classic definitions of career is that of Super (1976) The course of...

Emergence of East West Psychology

As mental health professionals felt more and more limited by the theories of behaviorism and psychoanalysis, which were mainly derived from studies of psychopathology, and ignored certain areas such as value, will, and consciousness necessary for a full inquiry into human nature, humanistic psychology emerged in the 1960s as a model based on health and the whole person. Humanistic psychology recognized the individual's drive toward self-actualization and the ways in which this idea could be...

Adulthood And Aging Social Processes And Development

One of the most reliable findings in social gerontology is that with age, people report fewer social partners. Assuming that cultural ageism is responsible, researchers had construed this phenomenon as society's rejection of older adults. Laura Carstensen's (1999) socioemotional selectivity theory, however, posits that decrease in social network size is a developmental process of social selection that begins in early adulthood. According to the theory, this decrease is the direct result of...

Treatment

The early roots of psychosomatic medicine consisted of psy-choanalytically oriented therapies, such as those of Alexander and his associates. In more recent decades, nonanalytic psychotherapies have become more prominent. With the increasing sophistication in pharmacotherapies, psychiatrists find the use of psychotropic medications helpful, including various tranquilizers and antidepressants. Group psychotherapy is especially suitable for certain psychosomatic patients, such as those with...

Myelination

The functional unit of the nervous system, the neuron, is equipped with a specialized region for transmitting information called the axon. The speed at which a neuron can convey sensory information to the brain and motor information to the muscles is dependent upon two critical features of its axon its diameter and the presence of a myelin sheath. By increasing the diameter of an axon, a strategy used in the nervous system of both invertebrates and vertebrates, the conduction velocity of a...

Anatomy of the Optic Nerve

The optic nerve has three meningeal layers the dura, the arachnoid, and the pia. The subarachnoid space is filled with cerebrospinal fluid that is continuous with the central subarachnoid space. The optic nerve is 50 mm but individual variation is common. In addition to the one millimeter intraocular component (the optic nerve head), the optic nerve has three other portions intraorbital, intracanalicular, and intracranial. The intraorbital optic nerve segment is the longest and is often...

The Demoralization Hypothesis

Since all forms of psychotherapy are helpful, their shared features must counteract a type of distress and disability common to most seekers of psychotherapy. This condition may be termed demoralization a sense of incompetence based on inability to solve some internal conflict or external problem, coupled with feelings of distress. Why some persons are more prone to demoralization than others is largely unknown. Inborn characteristics such as lack of stamina or hardihood probably have much to...

Unstructured Clinical Interview

The clinical interview has long been regarded as a founda-tional element of psychiatric and clinical psychological practice (Sullivan, 1954 Wiens, 1976). The interview format, of course, affords the clinician the direct opportunity to solicit from the patient salient, firsthand information regarding his or her presenting problems and the exigencies thereof. This assessment information typically proves germane to the ongoing process of case conceptualization (e.g., diagnosis) and the formulation...

Planned Shortterm Psychotherapy

Although occasional references to short-term psychotherapy appeared prior to the inauguration of the community mental health movement in the early 1960s, serious examination of brief psychotherapies began at the same time that mental health professionals recognized the importance of serving the mental health needs of the entire community. Time-limited psychotherapy was thought to be a strategy that had the potential for helping greater numbers of clients in the community. The literature on...

Babinski Sign

In 1896, Joseph Fran ois F lix Babinski (1857-1932) reported the clinical sign that now bears his name. Babinski noted that stimulation of the soles of the feet of some patients with unilateral paralysis induced, not the expected flexion, but rather the extension of the great toe on the paralyzed side (Babinski, 1896). Others had seen this reflex response, but Babinski was the first to recognize and call attention to its diagnostic importance, for example, in differentiating structural from...

Motion Parallax

Various types of information contribute to the visual perception of depth, including binocular disparity difference between the retinal images due to the separation of the eyes and pictorial cues such as relative size and interposition. Relative size refers to the difference in visual size according to the distance from the observer of objects of known physical size, while interposition refers to the fact that a relatively close object can partially or totally hide a more distant object....

Alpha Rhythms

Ensembles of synchronously active cortical neurons generate electromagnetic field potentials that can be measured by electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalog-raphy (MEG). The alpha frequency band is defined to be between 8 and 13 Hz (Berger, 1929 Adrian & Mathews, 1934). The classical alpha rhythm is prominent at electrodes overlying the occipital (visual) cortex and to a lesser extent over the posterior temporal and parietal areas. Alpha rhythm occurs in a condition of relaxed...

The Nature of Functional Specialization

The functional role played by any component (e.g., cortical area, subarea, or neuronal population) of the brain is defined by its connections. Certain patterns of cortical projections are so common that they could amount to rules of connectivity. These rules revolve around one, apparently, overriding strategy that the cerebral cortex uses that of functional specialization (Zeki, 1990). Functional specialization demands that cells with common functional properties be grouped together. This...

Striate Cortex

The striate cortex (area 17 or V1) is the primary visual cortex involved in conscious visual perception. It is located on both banks of the calcarine fissure in the occipital lobe. Each hemisphere has a precise, retinotopic representation of the contralateral visual field. The vertical meridian is represented at the V1 V2 (secondary visual cortex) border the horizontal meridian bisects it midway and the contralateral lower and upper visual fields are found in the cuneus and lingual gyrus,...

Varieties of Neobehaviorism

Once begun by Watson, the movement of behaviorism like all movements was changed by its later adherents. The major varieties of neobehaviorism are formal behaviorism, including logical behaviorism and purposive (or cognitive) behaviorism informal behaviorism and radical behaviorism. All but the last are forms of methodological behaviorism radical behaviorists uphold metaphysical behaviorism. Formal Behaviorism. While the behaviorist takes the subject matter of psychology to be behavior, he does...

Varieties of Behaviorism Classical Behaviorism

Historically, the most important distinction among versions of behaviorisms is that between Watson's original classical behaviorism boldly stated but imprecisely worked out and a variety of more sophisticated systems inspired by him, known collectively as neobehaviorism. In his paper Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It, Watson (1913, p. 158) spelled out the fundamental faith of all behaviorists Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural...

Rosenzweig Picturefrustration Pf Study

The Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration (P-F) study is a semi-projective technique of personality diagnosis that has been successfully used for the past half-century both as a clinical device and as an investigative procedure. It was developed as a method for exploring concepts of frustration theory and examining some dimensions of projective methodology (Rosenzweig, 1945). Based on earlier experiments on psychodynamic concepts, including frustration, repression, and directions and types of...

Evolutionary Psychology

Human psychology is a product of the human nervous system. Neural mechanisms, often clustered in the brain, gather and process information from the environment, interact, and execute all actions. Every conscious and unconscious mental phenomenon motivations, emotions, plans, and so on derives from neural activity. Even the most mundane behaviors require precise unconscious calculations. Walking, for instance, requires extensive feedback and sensory integration in order to coordinate intricate...

Specific Hungers

A specific hunger is an increased preference (or craving) for a specific food or flavor at a particular time, such as during conditions of vitamin deficiency. It is distinguished from a consistent preference for a particular food or flavor, such as the fact that some people like jalapenos and others do not. It is also distinguished from pica, which is a preference for eating something apparently useless or harmful, such as clay. Specific hungers were first documented by Curt Richter (1943,...

The Phallic Stage

The genitals become the primary erogenous zone during the phallic stage of psychosexual development, which extends from the fourth through the fifth years of life. During this stage, children can be observed examining their sex organs, masturbating, and showing interest in matters pertaining to birth and sex. But perhaps more important, this period of life serves as the stage on which the most critical psychological drama of childhood is played out the Oedipus complex. Freud theorized that...

Perceptual Control Theory

Perceptual control theory is a name adopted by a group of scientists interested in the feedback-system organization of human and animal behavior to distinguish their work from the control theory field of servo engineers. The members are engaged in the development and application of the thesis advanced in W. T. Powers's (1973) book, Behavior The Control of Perception. While a majority of this group are psychologists, it also includes biologists, sociologists, systems engineers, mathematicians,...

Eysenck Personality Questionnaire

The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Edition (EPQ-R) is the most recent version of the personality questionnaire designed to measure the three personality factors identified by Hans J. Eysenck (1916-1997) and others. These factors, known as psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism, comprise what is termed the P.E.N. Personality Model. The P.E.N. model holds that these three personality factors account for the bulk of human personality variation. That is, the model states that the...

Midbrain Thalamic Disorders Associated with Hallucinations

Hallucinations similar to those produced by peripheral lesions can occur with lesions of the upper midbrain and adjacent thalamus. Originally attributed to a lesion in the midbrain peduncular region, they remain known as peduncular hallucinations. Like Charles Bonnet hallucinations, they are usually vivid visual hallucinations, frequently of people or animals, sometimes Lilliputian, often moving. Unlike those produced by peripheral lesions, peduncular hallucinations are generally associated...

Hallucinogenic Drugs

Many drugs can produce hallucinations (e.g., LSD, scopo-lamine, phencyclidine, methamphetamine, bromides, alcohol withdrawal, corticosteroids), but only a few can do so without producing delirium, and those few, with LSD being the prototype, are termed hallucinogens. Even LSD does not usually produce true hallucinations, because the user usually remains aware that the sensory distortions are drug-induced pseudohallucinations, but this label has persisted. Hallucinogens are also called...

Ribosome Recycling

The termination step described in the preceding section leaves behind the ribosomal posttermination complex the next step is disassembly of that complex. In E. coli, this process is catalyzed by two factors elongation factor G (EF-G Hirashima & Kaji, 1972, 1973) or RF3 (Grentzmann et al., 1998) and ribosome recycling factor (RRF, originally called ribosome releasing factor Janosi, Shimizu, & Kaji, 1994). In addition to disassembly of the posttermination complex, RRF appears to help...

Emics and Etics

The jargon of cross-cultural specialists includes the terms emics and etics, which summarize an important central concept and analytical tool (Berry, 1969 Poortinga, 1997 Brislin, 2000). To best explain this concept, a problem that can be analyzed with the help of it will first be posed. Emics and etics will then be introduced in their abstract form and subsequently applied to the problem. The problem involves drought and starvation in East Africa (Talbot, 1972). Agroup of European consultants...

Severity Of Psychosocial Stressors Scale

The Severity of Psychosocial Stressors Scale was developed for Axis Iv of the third edition and revised third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The scale assessed precipitating stressors in mental disorders in the year prior to evaluation and formed part of the multiaxial system of modern diagnosis designed to improve the view of patients'background, symptoms, and functioning. The Severity Scale was founded on research on stressors that took place in the...

Sodiumpotassium Pump

Three families of membrane proteins hydrolyze ATP to obtain the energy needed for the transport of ions against their electrochemical gradients V-type ATPases (e.g., transporters of hydrogen ions into lysosomal vacuoles and synaptic vesicles), F-type ATPases (e.g., the ATP synthase of the mitochondrial inner membrane), and P-type ATPases (which share a common asp P reactive site and include the calcium ATPase of the cell membranes and the sarcoplas-mic reticulum, the H-K ATPase of the stomach...

Lewinsohns Model Of Depression

Lewinsohn's original model of depression (Lewinsohn, Weinstein, & Shaw, 1969) emphasized a reduced rate of response-contingent reinforcement as a critical antecedent for depression. Reinforcement was defined by the quality of the patient's interactions with his or her environment. Those person-environment interactions with positive outcomes constitute positive reinforcement. Such interactions strengthen the person's behavior. The term contingent refers to the temporal relationship between a...

Bystander Involvement

In March 1964 Kitty Genovese was brutally murdered in New York while 38 of her neighbors watched from their apartment windows. Even though the attack lasted over 30 minutes, no one called the police until it was over. As a direct result of this incident, a great deal of empirical and theoretical knowledge has been generated on the topic of bystander involvement. According to a model developed by Latane and Darley (1970), the decision to intervene consists of a series of decisions. First, the...

Seminal Events in Vertebrate History

In the line leading to vertebrates, several major evolutionary events occurred that established the basis for most parts of our nervous systems, including major gains in sensory system structure and the motor neuron-musculature system (Butler & Hodos, 1996 Nieuwenhuys, ten Donke-laar, & Nicholson, 1998). The brain and spinal cord were greatly enlarged, and the vertebrate sensory systems including olfactory, visual, somatosensory, auditory, vestibular, gustatory, and lateral line...

Synaptic Competition

Synapses converging onto a neuron or muscle fiber compete with each other for control of the electrical excitation of the target cell. In a process driven by the relative activity patterns of the individual synapses and the postsynaptic cell, the efficacy of some synapses is strengthened whereas other synapses are weakened or eliminated altogether. Synaptic competition allows for an experience-dependent editing of neuronal circuits both during development and in the mature nervous system....

Primary Secondary And Tertiary Gains And Secondary Losses

A second strategy involves the reduction of stress. Here relationships become more complex. Stress takes many forms. Reducing stress requires changes in the physical and social environment. Environmental stress situations involve a whole complex of interacting variables. Some Freud defined primary gain as a decrease in anxiety from a defensive operation which caused a symptom. Secondary gain was defined as interpersonal or social advantage attained by the patient because of the illness. The...

Peer Influences

High-quality peer relationships are important for all aspects of the development and well-being of children and adolescents. Compared with interaction with adults, interactions with peers tend to be more frequent, more intense, and more varied throughout childhood and adolescence. Traditionally, however, the relationships between children and adults have been viewed as the most important vehicle for ensuring effective socialization and development. Child-child relationships have been assumed to...

Promoting Positive Peer Relationships

To promote positive peer relationships, children should first have continuous opportunities to cooperate with peers and occasionally engage in competitions. Second, children should receive specific training in the social skills needed to build and maintain positive relationships. Third, the norms of caring, support, encouragement, assistance, reciprocity, and so forth should be established. The rights and responsibilities of collaborators and friends should be clear. Finally, a set of civic...

Light Touch and Heavy Pressure

The receptors for light touch are believed to comprise Meissner's corpuscles, hair follicle bulbs, and some free nerve endings. Heavy pressure is believed to have as its receptors the Pacinian corpuscles, which appear as onionlike bulbs, each with a central nerve fiber. Changes of pressure, rather than constant application of pressure, appear to lead to receptor function that senses vibratory pressure and touch. Adaptation to pressure takes place, as may be indicated by individuals'rapid loss...

Halsteadreitan Battery

The Halstead-Reitan Battery consists of a series of individual neuropsychological measures, that in combination permit the skilled examiner to make rather detailed inferences about the integrity of the cerebral hemispheres. Because the brain is the organ of adaptive behavior, brain dysfunction is typically observable in some behavioral aberration. The tests included in the Halstead-Reitan Battery are designed to sample behavior across every possible sphere and assess all major cognitive,...

Vineland Social Maturity Scale

Doll, the Vineland Social Maturity Scale represented an early attempt to measure social competence. Doll, in his Measurement of Social Competence, defined social competence as a functional composite of human traits which subserves social usefulness as reflected in self-sufficiency and in service to others (1953, p. 3). This component of human behavior has also been termed adaptive behavior, has been incorporated as a major component in the definition of mental...

Motor Cortex Plasticity and Cognition

Motor function has nearly infinite flexibility, ranging from the capability to learn new simple or complex tasks to recovery from central nervous system damage that might come about through changes in motor cortex internal pro PRIMARY PREVENTION OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY cessing. Flexibility of motor cortex output can be influenced by behavioral or physiological context. For example, changing a posture before moving modifies somatic sensory input that can then yield differing motor cortex output....

Motivated Forgetting

All of us forget to remember, at least occasionally. Whether it is the name of a relative, an item to purchase at the store, or, more rarely, entire events from our lives, we have all ex perienced the phenomenon of forgetting. Unlike a digital camcorder, the human memory system does not encode and retrieve data in a mechanical fashion. Only a portion of what is available to our senses is stored in memory (long-term storage), and only a portion of what is stored is available at any given moment...

Appic Association Of Psychology Postdoctoral And Internship Centers

Founded and incorporated in 1968, the Association of Psychology Internship Centers (APIC) was originally constituted as an informal group of psychologists involved in internship training. These trainers banded together for the purpose of sharing information about mutual problems. Over time, the organization expanded to include postdoctoral residency training directors as well as internship training directors, and in 1992 it was renamed the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship...