Mental Health

Taste Perception

Taste is one of five senses that may be involved in sensory evaluation, each sense being associated with a different type of receptor. The sense of taste is important because of its role in food recognition, selection, and acceptance. The final criteria by which food is judged and wins acceptance relate to sensory properties How does it look How does it taste How does it smell Individuals use their senses to determine whether a product is edible and whether it pleases them. The first is a...

Sexual Intercourse Human

Human sexual intercourse, or coitus, is one of the most common sexual outlets among adults. Although it is usually considered in the context of marriage, premarital and extramarital intercourse are also widely practiced. Adolescents appear to be engaging in sexual intercourse more frequently than in the past. Although cultures differ widely in their acceptance of premarital intercourse, U.S. customs have been traditionally more restrictive than most. Sexual intercourse generally refers to...

Sexual Dysfunction

Diseases of the neurological, vascular, and endocrine systems (e.g., diabetes, cancer, multiple sclerosis) can impair virtually any stage of the sexual response. Medications used to treat depression, high blood pressure, psychiatric disorders, and cancer, as well as numerous recreational drugs (e.g., barbiturates, narcotics, alcohol abuse, tobacco smoking) can interfere with sexual desire, arousal, and orgasm. Psychological factors contributing to impaired sexual function most commonly include...

The Primary Psychopath

A thoughtful and influential essay on the clinical characteristics of the psychopathic personality, The Mask of Sanity, was published in 1941 by psychiatrist Hervey Cleckley. Cleckley's psychopath, while not deeply vicious, carries disaster lightly in each hand. He may be intelligent and often displays great charm, enhanced undoubtedly by his lack of nervousness or other neurotic manifestations. Yet he is fundamentally unreliable, has a remarkable disregard for truth, and seems incapable of...

The Twelve Steps

We admitted we were powerless over alcohol that our lives had become unmanageable. 2. We came to believe that a Power greater than ourselves could restore us to sanity. 3. We made a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care of God as we understood Him. 4. We made a searching and fearless moral inventory of ourselves. 5. We admitted to God, ourselves and another human being the exact nature of our wrongs. 6. We were entirely ready to have God remove all these defects of character....

Countertransference

Countertransference refers to feelings that arise in the therapist in response to the patient during the course of the patient's treatment. In its narrowest sense, the term countertransference is defined as the therapist's transferential reactions to the patient. Like all transferential reactions, countertransference involves a displacement onto the patient of feelings, beliefs, or impulses that were experienced previously by the therapist toward another person or persons. The term...

Nonassociative Learning

From a biological viewpoint, learning is the process of acquiring new knowledge about the environment and the self necessary for survival of the species. Two major classes of learning can be distinguished nonassociative and associative. In nonassociative learning, the subject learns about a stimulus by being repeatedly exposed to it. Three forms of nonassociative learning are distinguished habituation, dishabituation, and sensitization. Habituation consists in a reduced response upon repeated...

Primary Motor Cortex And Primary Somatic Sensory Cortex

The primary motor cortex and the primary somatic sensory cortex represent two principal components of sensory motor integration implemented in the brain. The fundamental function of motor cortex is to control voluntary move ments, whereas somatic sensory cortex receives and analyzes tactile, joint, and muscle sensory inputs, sometimes in relation to voluntary movement. From classical perspectives, motor cortex functions as the final cortical output for already processed movement commands,...

Sleeper Effect

A sleeper effect in persuasion is a delayed increase in the impact of a persuasive message. In other words, a sleeper effect occurs when a communication shows no immediate persuasive effects, but, after a period of time, the recipient of the communication becomes more favorable toward the position advocated by the message. As a pattern of data, the sleeper effect is the opposite of the typical finding that induced opinion change dissipates over time. The term sleeper effect was first used by...

Career Defined

In order to understand the term career development, it is useful to consider the term career. Jobs and occupations are part of one's career but are not synonymous with this concept. Jobs and occupations describe groups of tasks or work performances that occur within a workplace and that constitute paid positions that can be identified, applied for, and achieved. But the term career means more than work performance. Among the classic definitions of career is that of Super (1976) The course of...

Emergence of East West Psychology

As mental health professionals felt more and more limited by the theories of behaviorism and psychoanalysis, which were mainly derived from studies of psychopathology, and ignored certain areas such as value, will, and consciousness necessary for a full inquiry into human nature, humanistic psychology emerged in the 1960s as a model based on health and the whole person. Humanistic psychology recognized the individual's drive toward self-actualization and the ways in which this idea could be...

Adulthood And Aging Social Processes And Development

One of the most reliable findings in social gerontology is that with age, people report fewer social partners. Assuming that cultural ageism is responsible, researchers had construed this phenomenon as society's rejection of older adults. Laura Carstensen's (1999) socioemotional selectivity theory, however, posits that decrease in social network size is a developmental process of social selection that begins in early adulthood. According to the theory, this decrease is the direct result of...

Theoretical Concepts

Although Freud never mentioned psychosomatic disorder in his writings, he stressed the role of psychic determinism in somatic conversion hysteria. Freud's followers provided further refinement of psychoanalytic concepts vis- -vis psychosomatic phenomena, including Dunbar's description of personality profiles (e.g., the ulcer personality, the coronary personality, and the arthritic personality), as well as Alexander's analysis of psychodynamic patterns underlying asthma, ulcers, arthritis,...

Treatment

The early roots of psychosomatic medicine consisted of psy-choanalytically oriented therapies, such as those of Alexander and his associates. In more recent decades, nonanalytic psychotherapies have become more prominent. With the increasing sophistication in pharmacotherapies, psychiatrists find the use of psychotropic medications helpful, including various tranquilizers and antidepressants. Group psychotherapy is especially suitable for certain psychosomatic patients, such as those with...

Stress Response

There are three current stress model paradigms environmental, psychological, and biological. Regardless of its etiology, stress exerts a powerful influence on the physiology of every bodily system via its impact on both the cognitive and physiological processes of the central nervous system (CNS). In a normal and beneficial stress response, the challenge is resolved or adapted to, and functioning returns to an appropriate base level. When these responses do not maintain homeostasis and...

Myelination

The functional unit of the nervous system, the neuron, is equipped with a specialized region for transmitting information called the axon. The speed at which a neuron can convey sensory information to the brain and motor information to the muscles is dependent upon two critical features of its axon its diameter and the presence of a myelin sheath. By increasing the diameter of an axon, a strategy used in the nervous system of both invertebrates and vertebrates, the conduction velocity of a...

Anatomy of the Optic Nerve

The optic nerve has three meningeal layers the dura, the arachnoid, and the pia. The subarachnoid space is filled with cerebrospinal fluid that is continuous with the central subarachnoid space. The optic nerve is 50 mm but individual variation is common. In addition to the one millimeter intraocular component (the optic nerve head), the optic nerve has three other portions intraorbital, intracanalicular, and intracranial. The intraorbital optic nerve segment is the longest and is often...

The Demoralization Hypothesis

Since all forms of psychotherapy are helpful, their shared features must counteract a type of distress and disability common to most seekers of psychotherapy. This condition may be termed demoralization a sense of incompetence based on inability to solve some internal conflict or external problem, coupled with feelings of distress. Why some persons are more prone to demoralization than others is largely unknown. Inborn characteristics such as lack of stamina or hardihood probably have much to...

Unstructured Clinical Interview

The clinical interview has long been regarded as a founda-tional element of psychiatric and clinical psychological practice (Sullivan, 1954 Wiens, 1976). The interview format, of course, affords the clinician the direct opportunity to solicit from the patient salient, firsthand information regarding his or her presenting problems and the exigencies thereof. This assessment information typically proves germane to the ongoing process of case conceptualization (e.g., diagnosis) and the formulation...

Planned Shortterm Psychotherapy

Although occasional references to short-term psychotherapy appeared prior to the inauguration of the community mental health movement in the early 1960s, serious examination of brief psychotherapies began at the same time that mental health professionals recognized the importance of serving the mental health needs of the entire community. Time-limited psychotherapy was thought to be a strategy that had the potential for helping greater numbers of clients in the community. The literature on...

Babinski Sign

In 1896, Joseph Fran ois F lix Babinski (1857-1932) reported the clinical sign that now bears his name. Babinski noted that stimulation of the soles of the feet of some patients with unilateral paralysis induced, not the expected flexion, but rather the extension of the great toe on the paralyzed side (Babinski, 1896). Others had seen this reflex response, but Babinski was the first to recognize and call attention to its diagnostic importance, for example, in differentiating structural from...

Motion Parallax

Various types of information contribute to the visual perception of depth, including binocular disparity difference between the retinal images due to the separation of the eyes and pictorial cues such as relative size and interposition. Relative size refers to the difference in visual size according to the distance from the observer of objects of known physical size, while interposition refers to the fact that a relatively close object can partially or totally hide a more distant object....

Alpha Rhythms

Ensembles of synchronously active cortical neurons generate electromagnetic field potentials that can be measured by electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalog-raphy (MEG). The alpha frequency band is defined to be between 8 and 13 Hz (Berger, 1929 Adrian & Mathews, 1934). The classical alpha rhythm is prominent at electrodes overlying the occipital (visual) cortex and to a lesser extent over the posterior temporal and parietal areas. Alpha rhythm occurs in a condition of relaxed...

The Nature of Functional Specialization

The functional role played by any component (e.g., cortical area, subarea, or neuronal population) of the brain is defined by its connections. Certain patterns of cortical projections are so common that they could amount to rules of connectivity. These rules revolve around one, apparently, overriding strategy that the cerebral cortex uses that of functional specialization (Zeki, 1990). Functional specialization demands that cells with common functional properties be grouped together. This...

Striate Cortex

The striate cortex (area 17 or V1) is the primary visual cortex involved in conscious visual perception. It is located on both banks of the calcarine fissure in the occipital lobe. Each hemisphere has a precise, retinotopic representation of the contralateral visual field. The vertical meridian is represented at the V1 V2 (secondary visual cortex) border the horizontal meridian bisects it midway and the contralateral lower and upper visual fields are found in the cuneus and lingual gyrus,...

Varieties of Neobehaviorism

Once begun by Watson, the movement of behaviorism like all movements was changed by its later adherents. The major varieties of neobehaviorism are formal behaviorism, including logical behaviorism and purposive (or cognitive) behaviorism informal behaviorism and radical behaviorism. All but the last are forms of methodological behaviorism radical behaviorists uphold metaphysical behaviorism. Formal Behaviorism. While the behaviorist takes the subject matter of psychology to be behavior, he does...

Varieties of Behaviorism Classical Behaviorism

Historically, the most important distinction among versions of behaviorisms is that between Watson's original classical behaviorism boldly stated but imprecisely worked out and a variety of more sophisticated systems inspired by him, known collectively as neobehaviorism. In his paper Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It, Watson (1913, p. 158) spelled out the fundamental faith of all behaviorists Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural...

Psychoendocrinology

Hormones are substances, such as steroids and peptides, synthesized and released from endocrine glands, cell clusters, or specialized cells and spread over the brain, lungs, or gastrointestinal tract. Several of these hormones exist both in the brain and peripheral organs, where they act as an endocrine or paracrine messenger, or even as a neuro-transmitter. Most endocrine activities vary with sex and age, and many show pronounced variations over the course of the month or even the day....

Rosenzweig Picturefrustration Pf Study

The Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration (P-F) study is a semi-projective technique of personality diagnosis that has been successfully used for the past half-century both as a clinical device and as an investigative procedure. It was developed as a method for exploring concepts of frustration theory and examining some dimensions of projective methodology (Rosenzweig, 1945). Based on earlier experiments on psychodynamic concepts, including frustration, repression, and directions and types of...

Evolutionary Psychology

Human psychology is a product of the human nervous system. Neural mechanisms, often clustered in the brain, gather and process information from the environment, interact, and execute all actions. Every conscious and unconscious mental phenomenon motivations, emotions, plans, and so on derives from neural activity. Even the most mundane behaviors require precise unconscious calculations. Walking, for instance, requires extensive feedback and sensory integration in order to coordinate intricate...

Specific Hungers

A specific hunger is an increased preference (or craving) for a specific food or flavor at a particular time, such as during conditions of vitamin deficiency. It is distinguished from a consistent preference for a particular food or flavor, such as the fact that some people like jalapenos and others do not. It is also distinguished from pica, which is a preference for eating something apparently useless or harmful, such as clay. Specific hungers were first documented by Curt Richter (1943,...

Tertiary Prevention

The concept of tertiary prevention arises from the public health preventive services model (Commission on Chronic Illness, 1957 Last, 1992). In this model, preventive services are categorized into primary, secondary, or tertiary interventions. The goal of primary prevention is to decrease the prevalence of disease via reduction in its rate of occurrence. Primary prevention is therefore directed at eliminating eti-ologic factors, thereby reducing the incidence of the disease or eradicating it...

The Phallic Stage

The genitals become the primary erogenous zone during the phallic stage of psychosexual development, which extends from the fourth through the fifth years of life. During this stage, children can be observed examining their sex organs, masturbating, and showing interest in matters pertaining to birth and sex. But perhaps more important, this period of life serves as the stage on which the most critical psychological drama of childhood is played out the Oedipus complex. Freud theorized that...

Perceptual Control Theory

Perceptual control theory is a name adopted by a group of scientists interested in the feedback-system organization of human and animal behavior to distinguish their work from the control theory field of servo engineers. The members are engaged in the development and application of the thesis advanced in W. T. Powers's (1973) book, Behavior The Control of Perception. While a majority of this group are psychologists, it also includes biologists, sociologists, systems engineers, mathematicians,...

Eysenck Personality Questionnaire

The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Edition (EPQ-R) is the most recent version of the personality questionnaire designed to measure the three personality factors identified by Hans J. Eysenck (1916-1997) and others. These factors, known as psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism, comprise what is termed the P.E.N. Personality Model. The P.E.N. model holds that these three personality factors account for the bulk of human personality variation. That is, the model states that the...

Conclusion

Psychology and Islam illustrate two main methods for obtaining knowledge through trusting a divine revelation or through objective analysis of experienced phenomena. Both of these methods possess flaws. It is possible to read something from a credible source but misunderstand a particular issue. The possibility of error through personal experience is well documented for example, optical illusions provide numerous examples of such errors (Gross & Mcllveen, 1998). In addition, reason is...

Midbrain Thalamic Disorders Associated with Hallucinations

Hallucinations similar to those produced by peripheral lesions can occur with lesions of the upper midbrain and adjacent thalamus. Originally attributed to a lesion in the midbrain peduncular region, they remain known as peduncular hallucinations. Like Charles Bonnet hallucinations, they are usually vivid visual hallucinations, frequently of people or animals, sometimes Lilliputian, often moving. Unlike those produced by peripheral lesions, peduncular hallucinations are generally associated...

Hallucinogenic Drugs

Many drugs can produce hallucinations (e.g., LSD, scopo-lamine, phencyclidine, methamphetamine, bromides, alcohol withdrawal, corticosteroids), but only a few can do so without producing delirium, and those few, with LSD being the prototype, are termed hallucinogens. Even LSD does not usually produce true hallucinations, because the user usually remains aware that the sensory distortions are drug-induced pseudohallucinations, but this label has persisted. Hallucinogens are also called...

Ribosome Recycling

The termination step described in the preceding section leaves behind the ribosomal posttermination complex the next step is disassembly of that complex. In E. coli, this process is catalyzed by two factors elongation factor G (EF-G Hirashima & Kaji, 1972, 1973) or RF3 (Grentzmann et al., 1998) and ribosome recycling factor (RRF, originally called ribosome releasing factor Janosi, Shimizu, & Kaji, 1994). In addition to disassembly of the posttermination complex, RRF appears to help...

Emics and Etics

The jargon of cross-cultural specialists includes the terms emics and etics, which summarize an important central concept and analytical tool (Berry, 1969 Poortinga, 1997 Brislin, 2000). To best explain this concept, a problem that can be analyzed with the help of it will first be posed. Emics and etics will then be introduced in their abstract form and subsequently applied to the problem. The problem involves drought and starvation in East Africa (Talbot, 1972). Agroup of European consultants...

Severity Of Psychosocial Stressors Scale

The Severity of Psychosocial Stressors Scale was developed for Axis Iv of the third edition and revised third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The scale assessed precipitating stressors in mental disorders in the year prior to evaluation and formed part of the multiaxial system of modern diagnosis designed to improve the view of patients'background, symptoms, and functioning. The Severity Scale was founded on research on stressors that took place in the...

Somatopsychics Definition

The term somatopsychics is derived from the Greek terms soma, meaning body, and psyche, which has become an English term as well. Somatopsychics refers to psychological effects engendered by somatic conditions. Such psychological states range from normal, to mild mood alterations (like irritability due to low blood sugar), to major psychiatric conditions. Somatopsychics needs to be contrasted with psychoso-matics. Psychosomatic mechanisms operate when psychological conditions produce physical...

Sodiumpotassium Pump

Three families of membrane proteins hydrolyze ATP to obtain the energy needed for the transport of ions against their electrochemical gradients V-type ATPases (e.g., transporters of hydrogen ions into lysosomal vacuoles and synaptic vesicles), F-type ATPases (e.g., the ATP synthase of the mitochondrial inner membrane), and P-type ATPases (which share a common asp P reactive site and include the calcium ATPase of the cell membranes and the sarcoplas-mic reticulum, the H-K ATPase of the stomach...

Lewinsohns Model Of Depression

Lewinsohn's original model of depression (Lewinsohn, Weinstein, & Shaw, 1969) emphasized a reduced rate of response-contingent reinforcement as a critical antecedent for depression. Reinforcement was defined by the quality of the patient's interactions with his or her environment. Those person-environment interactions with positive outcomes constitute positive reinforcement. Such interactions strengthen the person's behavior. The term contingent refers to the temporal relationship between a...

Bystander Involvement

In March 1964 Kitty Genovese was brutally murdered in New York while 38 of her neighbors watched from their apartment windows. Even though the attack lasted over 30 minutes, no one called the police until it was over. As a direct result of this incident, a great deal of empirical and theoretical knowledge has been generated on the topic of bystander involvement. According to a model developed by Latane and Darley (1970), the decision to intervene consists of a series of decisions. First, the...

References

P. (1995). Psychology's role in the assessment of erectile dysfunction Historical precedents, current knowledge, and methods. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63(6), 862-876. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., rev.). Washington, DC Author. Ban, T. A., & Freyhan, F. A. (1980). Drug treatment of sexual dysfunction. New York Karger. Bancroft, J. (1988). Sexual desire and the...

Seminal Events in Vertebrate History

In the line leading to vertebrates, several major evolutionary events occurred that established the basis for most parts of our nervous systems, including major gains in sensory system structure and the motor neuron-musculature system (Butler & Hodos, 1996 Nieuwenhuys, ten Donke-laar, & Nicholson, 1998). The brain and spinal cord were greatly enlarged, and the vertebrate sensory systems including olfactory, visual, somatosensory, auditory, vestibular, gustatory, and lateral line...

Statistics and Experimental Design

One area with a long-standing interface between psychology and agriculture is statistical analysis and design. A century ago, psychologists such as Francis Galton were instrumental in developing modern statistical thinking. Later psychologists (e.g., James McKeen Cattell and L. L. Thurstone) extended the application of statistics in behavioral research. Statisticians working in agriculture (such as R. A. Fisher) developed much of what is now standard experimental design and analysis. For...

Synaptic Competition

Synapses converging onto a neuron or muscle fiber compete with each other for control of the electrical excitation of the target cell. In a process driven by the relative activity patterns of the individual synapses and the postsynaptic cell, the efficacy of some synapses is strengthened whereas other synapses are weakened or eliminated altogether. Synaptic competition allows for an experience-dependent editing of neuronal circuits both during development and in the mature nervous system....

Autoshaping

Autoshaping refers to the process whereby biologically primed stimulus-response relations interact with and occasionally override operantly learned, potentially incompatible response-reinforcer relations. It may also be referred to as misbehavior of organisms. The name is derived from quick operant shaping (i.e., automatic shaping) that occurred without apparent reinforcement of successive approximations. Typically, the behavior observed depends upon the object or goal received. For example,...

Primary Secondary And Tertiary Gains And Secondary Losses

A second strategy involves the reduction of stress. Here relationships become more complex. Stress takes many forms. Reducing stress requires changes in the physical and social environment. Environmental stress situations involve a whole complex of interacting variables. Some Freud defined primary gain as a decrease in anxiety from a defensive operation which caused a symptom. Secondary gain was defined as interpersonal or social advantage attained by the patient because of the illness. The...

Peer Influences

High-quality peer relationships are important for all aspects of the development and well-being of children and adolescents. Compared with interaction with adults, interactions with peers tend to be more frequent, more intense, and more varied throughout childhood and adolescence. Traditionally, however, the relationships between children and adults have been viewed as the most important vehicle for ensuring effective socialization and development. Child-child relationships have been assumed to...

Promoting Positive Peer Relationships

To promote positive peer relationships, children should first have continuous opportunities to cooperate with peers and occasionally engage in competitions. Second, children should receive specific training in the social skills needed to build and maintain positive relationships. Third, the norms of caring, support, encouragement, assistance, reciprocity, and so forth should be established. The rights and responsibilities of collaborators and friends should be clear. Finally, a set of civic...

Light Touch and Heavy Pressure

The receptors for light touch are believed to comprise Meissner's corpuscles, hair follicle bulbs, and some free nerve endings. Heavy pressure is believed to have as its receptors the Pacinian corpuscles, which appear as onionlike bulbs, each with a central nerve fiber. Changes of pressure, rather than constant application of pressure, appear to lead to receptor function that senses vibratory pressure and touch. Adaptation to pressure takes place, as may be indicated by individuals'rapid loss...

Halsteadreitan Battery

The Halstead-Reitan Battery consists of a series of individual neuropsychological measures, that in combination permit the skilled examiner to make rather detailed inferences about the integrity of the cerebral hemispheres. Because the brain is the organ of adaptive behavior, brain dysfunction is typically observable in some behavioral aberration. The tests included in the Halstead-Reitan Battery are designed to sample behavior across every possible sphere and assess all major cognitive,...

Vineland Social Maturity Scale

Doll, the Vineland Social Maturity Scale represented an early attempt to measure social competence. Doll, in his Measurement of Social Competence, defined social competence as a functional composite of human traits which subserves social usefulness as reflected in self-sufficiency and in service to others (1953, p. 3). This component of human behavior has also been termed adaptive behavior, has been incorporated as a major component in the definition of mental...

Motor Cortex Plasticity and Cognition

Motor function has nearly infinite flexibility, ranging from the capability to learn new simple or complex tasks to recovery from central nervous system damage that might come about through changes in motor cortex internal pro PRIMARY PREVENTION OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY cessing. Flexibility of motor cortex output can be influenced by behavioral or physiological context. For example, changing a posture before moving modifies somatic sensory input that can then yield differing motor cortex output....

Motivated Forgetting

All of us forget to remember, at least occasionally. Whether it is the name of a relative, an item to purchase at the store, or, more rarely, entire events from our lives, we have all ex perienced the phenomenon of forgetting. Unlike a digital camcorder, the human memory system does not encode and retrieve data in a mechanical fashion. Only a portion of what is available to our senses is stored in memory (long-term storage), and only a portion of what is stored is available at any given moment...

Appic Association Of Psychology Postdoctoral And Internship Centers

Founded and incorporated in 1968, the Association of Psychology Internship Centers (APIC) was originally constituted as an informal group of psychologists involved in internship training. These trainers banded together for the purpose of sharing information about mutual problems. Over time, the organization expanded to include postdoctoral residency training directors as well as internship training directors, and in 1992 it was renamed the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship...

Clinical Evaluation Using Efferent Stimulation

M waves are used for assessment of the number of motor units in a muscle and thus for estimation of the number of alpha motoneurons serving a muscle (the motoneuronal pool for that muscle). When the intensity of transcutaneous electrical stimulation of a mixed nerve is gradually increased, a current is reached at which the first small M wave is seen at the appropriate latency in the EMG. This M wave represents the muscular result of activation of the axon of a motoneuron. If the current is then...

Negative View of the Personal World

The first component of the cognitive triad (Figure 1) is the tendency of the depressed individual to interpret ongoing experiences in a negative way. Interactions with the environment are often misinterpreted as representing some form of defeat or deprivation. Automatic reactions to problems or difficulties are likely to be thoughts such as I'm beaten, I'll never be able to do this, or I'm blocked no matter what I do. Any problem seems insoluble, and any delay in reaching a goal seems...

Brain Specialization Specialization and Integration

The brain adheres to two fundamental principles of organization, functional integration and functional specialization. The integration among specialized cortical areas depends upon cortico-(sub)cortical connections and the neuronal interactions they mediate. The characterization of functional specialization is important in many areas of neuroscience and provides an infrastructure within which normal brain function can be understood (e.g., cognitive neuroscience) and how things might go wrong...

Cognitive Neuroscience Of Learning And Memory

Cognitive neuroscience approaches, with their focus on relating neural substrates to cognitive functions, have advanced our understanding of the neural basis of learning and memory. In turn, our understanding of the neural basis has informed the way we think about the functional organization of memory systems. One of the most prominent themes in cognitive neuroscience has been trying to understand which kinds of learning and memory are spared, and which are impaired, with damage to the...

Delta Waves in Pathological Functions

Delta waves are related to pathological functions in at least two ways. The first of these involves the presence of abnormal delta activity. For example, impairments in cortical areas (e.g., due to deafferentation, abnormal development, or necrosis) promote delta waves in regions contiguous to cortical tumors (Amzica & Steriade, 1998), in Down syndrome (which reflects slow and deficient brain development Kaneko, Phillips, Riley, & Ehlers, 1996), and in cerebrovascular disease (Inui,...

Neuroanatomy of Shape Perception

The cortical loci responsible for shape analysis have also been studied using functional imaging. The critical design for such a study must ensure that shape analysis is isolated from feature processing and activation of semantic memory using a subtractive methodology (see Peterson, Fox, Sny-der, & Raichle, 1990). In studies where these conditions have been met, the cortical areas activated only during shape analysis are on the inferolateral surface of the brain near the junction of...

Anatomy of the Hippocampus

From the perspective of its role in cognition and memory, the hippocampal system is last in a long succession of stages of cortical representation (Van Hoesen, 1982). Neo-cortical areas that provide information to the hippocampal system include only the highest stages of each neocortical sensory system, plus multimodal and limbic cortical areas and the olfactory cortex. These inputs arrive in three main cortical subdivisions of the parahippocampal region, composed of the perirhinal,...

Importance of Controlling Glucose Homeostasis

In aged rats and humans, impaired glucose regulation has been correlated with poor memory performance. Aged (22 to 24 months) and young (3 months) rats were assessed in a battery of behavioral tests that included tasks of learning and place navigation. Following evaluation all animals were analyzed for their local glucose utilization. The decline in performance correlated significantly with the decrement in regional glucose utilization (Gage, Kelly, & Bjork-lund, 1984). Moreover, performance...

Cortical Representation of Pain

Single-cell recordings in the monkey established that nociceptive pathways project to areas 3b and 1 of the primary somatosensory cortex. Pain has a sensory component in addition to its strong emotional component, and is processed by multiple distributed cortical loci. The SI cortex is involved in the sensory-discriminative aspect of pain, especially stimulus localization, while intensity may be coded by multiple cortical areas (see Treede, Kenshalo, Gracely, & Jones, 1999). Burton, H., &...

Primary Mental Abilities

One of the earliest accomplishments of the science of psychology was the objective measurement of mental abilities. In 1904, the British psychologist Charles Spearman argued that intelligence could be characterized as being composed of a general factor (g) common to all meaningful activity and of specific factors (s) that are unique to the different tasks used to measure intelligence. Test instruments that applied the concept of general intelligence were introduced by Binet and Simon in France...

Primary Somatic Sensory Cortex

The primary somatic sensory cortex receives detailed sensory information about the skin, muscle, and joints that becomes segregated into anatomically distinguishable subdivisions that separately process sensation related to skin surface deformations or deep joint and muscle sensations. Each subzone has a complete homuncular representation of the body surface with little overlap among circuits processing somatic sensory input from nearby body parts. Somatic sensory cortex has a columnar...

Antidepressant Medications

Medications effective in reducing the symptoms of major depression are called antidepressants. The Food and Drug Administration requires controlled, double-blind studies showing safety and efficacy before approving an antidepres-sant medication to be available in the United States. Major Depressive Disorder is characterized by sadness and an inability to experience pleasure. Associated symptoms include decreased self-esteem, feelings of hopelessness and worthlessness, excessive guilt, and...

Examples of Intervening Variables

Here, two uses of intervening variables are considered that illustrate their potential value, especially as tools in the development of theory. Mowrer and Viek kept all laboratory rats in their experiment hungry. They allowed rats in the experimental group to turn off noxious electric shock by jumping off the floor. The shock was given 10 seconds after the rats started to eat food offered on a stick pushed up through the floor bars. Matched controls in contiguous cages had a shock of exactly...

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a method that can provide information on both the anatomy and physiological function of the brain. It is a powerful tool for integrating our current understanding of brain function with models of cognition and emotion. Anatomical MRI provides a picture of brain structure, whereas functional MRI (fMRI) provides information about the physiological function of the brain. MRI relies on three magnetic fields. Aconstant magnetic field, known as the static field,...

Neuronal Cell Body

As a single cell, the neuron is highly specialized in the extent of its regionalization, that is, its structural and functional compartmentalization. Three distinct regions or compartments can be identified in a typical neuron dendrites, cell body, and axons. The cell body plays two principle roles in the life of a neuron supporting most of its macromolecular synthesis and serving as the site at which input signals are integrated to determine output signals. The cell body, also called the...

Competency To Stand Trial

A defendant can be found incompetent to stand trial, under provisions in criminal law, if he or she is unable to understand or participate adequately in his or her defense. If the defendant is found incompetent, further judicial proceedings are suspended until his or her competency is restored. The purpose behind this procedure is to ensure that a defendant receives a fair trial and, in addition, to preserve the dignity of the adversarial process (Melton, Petrila, Poythress, & Slogobin,...

Apraxic Agraphia

Single letters are malformed or confused according to their graphic (e.g., M and W) rather than their phonetic similarity. This variety is consequent to the loss of graphic motor programs necessary for writing. Apraxic agraphia resembling pure agraphia has been described in terms of a modality-specific apraxia, but (ideomotor) apraxia is usually present in nonlanguage tasks. In Gerstmann's syndrome, elements of aphasic, spatial, and apraxic agraphia mingle. Lesions are found in the left...

Methodological Versus Metaphysical Behaviorism

Philosophically, one must distinguish two main justifications for rejecting mentalism and choosing behaviorism. A methodological behaviorist concedes that mental events and processes are real, but maintains that they cannot be studied scientifically. The data of science, says the methodological behaviorist, must be public events, such as the motions of the planets or chemical reactions that all researchers can observe. Conscious experience, however, is necessarily private introspection may...

Definition and Clinical Descriptions

The disorder of anorexia nervosa (AN) is defined by four major criteria. 1. Refusal to maintain body weight at a minimally normal weight for age and height. 2. An intense fear of gaining weight. This fear, present even in an emaciated condition, may be denied, but it is demonstrated by an intense preoccupation with thoughts of food, irrational worries about gaining weight, and rigorous exercising programs, with severe restriction of total food intake in order to prevent weight gain. 3. A...

Homeostasis

Complex organisms must maintain relatively stable internal environments to survive and move freely through the changing and often adverse conditions that surround them. Homeostasis is the name given to this constancy in 1926 by Walter B. Cannon, an American physiologist. Through his work on homeostasis, Cannon created a concept that is a milestone in the history of ideas. It was the culmination of an approach begun some six decades earlier with the work of Claude Bernard, the French...

Double Bind

Double bind is a concept characterizing an ongoing pattern of communication that imposes painful no-win situations upon its victim through two processes first, through contradictory demands made at different levels of communication, and second, by preventing the victim from either discriminating and commenting on the bind or withdrawing from it. Originally studied in the relationships between schizophrenic adults and their families, the double bind was viewed as having had causal relevance for...

Central Nervous System

The central nervous system (CNS) refers to the portion of the nervous system that lies within the skull and spinal column and receives nervous impulses from sense receptors throughout the organism, regulates bodily processes, and organizes and directs behavior. .Anatomically, the CNS comprises the brain and spinal cord, which float within the cranial cavity of the skull and the vertebral canal of the spinal column in a liquid matrix called cerebrospinal fluid, which also fills their hollows and...

Contributions of Tolman and Hull

The use of intervening variables in psychological theory was first suggested by E. C. Tolman. Tolman later stated that he had come to favor the more comprehensive, less restricted hypothetical construct. Looking back on his earlier theoretical work, he commented, My intervening variables are generally speaking mere temporarily believed-in, inductive, more or less qualitative generalizations which categorize and sum up for me various empirically found relationships. . . . And they are not...

Unconscious

The unconscious is a hypothetical construct used to describe behaviors, phenomena, material, processes, and so on that are out of immediate awareness (English & English, 1958 1974). Prior to Freud, this concept was used to explain a variety of behavior, such as dissociation, mesmerism, and trancework. Freud initiated the formal term unconscious (Rychlack, 1981). Later, Erickson and Rossi refined it via Ericksonian hypnotherapy and state-dependent memory learning and behavior systems or the...

Trance Logic

Trance logic is the ability to tolerate logical incongruities. It is not particularly troublesome for the hypnotized person to regress to, for example, 7 years of age. At one level the hypnotized person knows reality exists, but at another level it can be suspended in an effortless absorption in a fantasy world. However, his or her recollection of past experiences may have been contaminated by the contextual aspects of memory. The hypnotized subject's regression may not accurately reproduce...

Loose Associations

The most important source of data for assessing patients with psychiatric disorders is speech behavior during a clinical interview. One critical component of this assessment is the patient's ability to produce coherent conversational discourse. The sine qua non of disrupted discourse coherence consists of loose associations. A synonymous term currently used is derailment. Loose associations or derailments are suspected when the listener has significant difficulty following or tracking...

Hypothetical Constructs and Intervening Variables

Theoretical constructs within psychology are thus hypothesized internal processes presumed to underlie specified overt behaviors. An influential distinction between two types of such constructs was made by MacCorquodale and Meehl. Hypothetical constructs are defined as complex internal processes with meanings that are not entirely confined to the relationship between the stimulating conditions and the ensuing behaviors (i.e., they contain surplus meaning). The basic problem with the...

Photic and Nonphotic Zeitgebers

It appears that nonphotic factors such as social factors or social rhythms may also be important in the setting of cir-cadian rhythms in human subjects (Aschoff, Fatranska, & Giedke, 1971 Mrosovsky, 1996 Wever, 1975, 1979, 1988). As well as acting as a direct zeitgeber, social rhythms can indirectly determine when a person is exposed to physical zeitgebers such as daylight and darkness. Moreover, social rhythms also determine when a person goes to bed or gets up and thus set the timing of...

Precocious Development

Precocity refers to an earlier than expected maturation level. The term is often used to refer to untimely ripeness or premature fruiting. A child who is described as precocious has developed earlier and at an accelerated rate when compared to other children of the same age. Early development can be general or specific in its manifestation. General precocity refers to a child advanced in numerous areas physical, intellectual, and social. Specific precocity is more often the case and this...

Theories of Autoshaping

Autoshaping resides in the gap between nature and nurture. It has been posited that autoshaping represents interactions between organism and environment, phylogeny and ontogeny, and respondent and instrumental processes. Each of these represents a different level of analysis to the puzzle of autoshaping. Though the formal study of autoshaping largely began in the late 1960s, the existence of the phenomenon may have been foreshadowed by Darwin's theory of evolution (1859). Darwin posited natural...

Constructivist Psychotherapy

Constructivism refers to a group of theories (originally stemming from George Kelly's personal construct theory) holding the philosophical position that so-called reality is, in some ways, created by persons. Rather than imposing some objective truth on persons seeking help, constructivist therapists attempt experientially to grasp the lived reality of each client. Constructivist therapy is a cocreated experience between therapist and client, mutual experts on different aspects of the reality...

Causes Consequences and Reduction of Ethnocentrism

The causes and manifestation of ethnocentrism can take different forms. One type of explanation would be based on personality factors of individuals. Another form of ethnocentric behavior is contextual or situational, such as the loss of jobs due to competition from a neighboring state or groups. One group or nation can be transformed from a friend to an enemy and vice versa after the end of a war. The reasons for another type of ethnocentrism may vary from mistrust of the stranger to the aims...

Errors in Rating

An advantage of the forced-choice rating method is that it does a better job than other types of scales in controlling for certain errors in rating. Two errors are giving ratings that are higher than justified (leniency error) or lower than justified (severity error). Other errors are checking the average or middle category too often (central tendency error) and rating an individual highly on a certain characteristic or behavior simply because he or she rates highly in other areas (halo...

Somatosensory Function

Somatosensory function is the ability to interpret bodily sensation. Sensation takes a number of forms, including touch, pressure, vibration, temperature, itch, tickle, and pain. The somatosensory system allows individuals to interpret sensory messages received from the body and consists of sensory receptors located in the skin, tissues, and joints the nerve cell tracts in the body and spinal cord and brain centers that process incoming sensory information (Figure 1). Sensory information is...

Antabuse Disulfiram And Other Antialcoholism Drugs

Antabuse (disulfiram), a drug used as a supplementary therapy for alcoholism, was originally used in the manufacture of rubber. When the chemical got into the air in one factory and settled on the workers' skin, many developed dermatitis (Schwartz & Tulipan, 1933). If they inhaled the disulfiram, they discovered that they could no longer tolerate alcohol. Beginning in the 1940s, therapists tried using the drug as a therapy for alcoholism, on the theory that alcoholics would learn to avoid...

Introversionextraversion

Carl Jung coined the terms introversion and extraversion to refer to two different psychological types. By introversion, Jung meant a turning inward of the libido (psychic energy), whereas extraversion referred to a directing outward of the libido. Note that either term can be spelled with an o or an a (that is, either as above or as intraversion and extroversion). Although inconsistent, introversion and extraversion are the spellings used with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), which is a...

Philosophy of Mind

Otherwise known as the mind-body problem, the problematic nature of this field of inquiry is typically traced to Descartes's (in)famous articulation of substance dualism (though both Plato and Aristotle weighed in on the issue). Two broadly construed solutions have been proposed to the mind-body problem dualism and monism. Though the mind-body problem has changed significantly since Descartes's time, being construed now as the problem of consciousness, the various solutions to this problem...

Scientific Method

The scientific method is a set of procedures designed to establish general laws through developing and evaluating theories that attempt to describe, explain, and predict phenomena. Hypotheses are made from such theories the hypotheses are evaluated using objective, controlled, empirical investigations and conclusions are open to public scrutiny, analysis, and replication. Conclusions about reality can be made in at least four different ways on faith (I believe that God created heaven and...

Adolescent Sex Offenders

Historically, sexual offenses by adolescents have been minimized and viewed as innocent sex play, experimentation, curiosity, or a normal aspect of sexual development. In the early 1980s, however, clinicians and the judicial system determined that aberrant juvenile sexual behaviors were unacceptable and would be considered criminal actions in need of appropriate psychological treatment. Although incidence rates vary, Uniform Crime Report (UCR) statistics indicate that 20 of rapes and about 50...

Dysthymic Disorder

Dysthymic Disorder is a form of mood disorder that is characterized by mild, chronic depression. The current diagnostic criteria for dysthymia require chronic depressed mood (i.e., depressed most of the day, for more days than not, for at least 2 years). In addition, the individual must experience at least two of the following six depressive symptoms low self-esteem, feelings of hopelessness, low energy or fatigue, difficulty concentrating or making decisions, sleep disturbance (insomnia or...

Individualism

In common usage, individualism is defined as leading one's life in one's own way without regard for others. Individualism may be separated from individuality, which is the sum of the qualities that set one person apart from others. To individualize is to distinguish a person as different from others, whereas to individuate is to make a person individual or distinct. Individualism is also distinct from autonomy, which is the ability to understand what others expect in any given situation and...