Natural Remedies for Food Cravings

Sugar Crush Detox

This program was designed by Jane who had the same problems with sugar. Throughout her life, she was addicted to sugar and she thought she needs swift intervention before that habit develops into something else. She had an experience that helped her beat sugar addiction with the rest of the world. Her program helps you cut all the roots of majority of the health problems you usually gets. It attacks the weight loss problem at its source which is the biological craving for sugar. This product was specifically created to help people with sugar cravings beat this addiction and lead a healthy life. This program contains a couple of guides available in PDF, MP3 and video formats. The author used simple language in all the formats to ensure that everybody will be able to handle sugar addiction. If you are one of them and you want to get the full support required to quit sugar and lead a heathy life, then Sugar Crush Detox is for you. More here...

Sugar Crush Detox Summary

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Sucrose Gradient Sedimentation

150 ml of purified gC1q domain protein was applied to 4.2ml 5-20 sucrose gradient in 50mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH8.0) containing 150mM NaCl. Protein standards were applied to parallel gradients chymotrypsinogen A (25kDa), ovalbumin (43kDa), bovine serum albumin (67kDa), catalase (250kDa) and urease (272kDa). The gradients were spun for 22hr at 4 C in a Sorvall TH-641 rotor at 50,000rpm and 23 fractions were sequentially collected from the bottom of the gradient and analysed by their UV absorbance at 280nm and western blotting.

Physicochemical Properties Of Drugs

A number of nutrient molecules are transferred across the BBB by ''facilitated diffusion.'' The transported molecules cross the plasma membranes by interacting with intramembrane transporter proteins related to water-filled channels. The two systems with the highest capacity are that for d-glucose and certain other sugars (the gene product Glut 1) and that for large neutral amino acids, the so-called l-system. The first has been sequenced for a number of mammalian species, the preferred structure of the sugar substrate understood, and models for sugar translocation across the membrane discussed (12). The high maximum transport capacity at the blood-brain barrier, 4 j,mol

Hydrogen Bonding And Brain Perfusion

The 18 compounds ranged from sucrose (log PS -5.30) to propanolol (log PS 0.98) with PS in units of ml s-1g-1. All the PS products were corrected to refer to compounds in their neutral form. Equation (23) is not particularly good, but the SD value of 0.48 log unit is much smaller than those in equations (7) and (8). Figure 7 plots observed versus calculated log PS values, showing random scatter about the line of identity (cf. Fig. 4). Sucrose

Polysome Profile Analysis

For one week, rats (4 per experimental diet) were fed either the low protein or high protein diet used in feeding study 1. Polysome profile analysis was carried out as described by Chambers and Ness9. A portion of the liver from each rat was homogenized in PMS buffer (250 mM sucrose, 20 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, 250 mM KCl, 5mM MgCl, 2 mM DTT, 150 g ml cyclo-heximide, 1 mg ml sodium heparin), and nuclei were collected by centrifugation. The supernatant was layered over a sucrose gradient of 1540 in PMS buffer, and the gradient was centrifuged at 100,000 x g for 3 h. The gradients were pumped through a flow cell with monitoring of absorb-ance at 254 nm and collection of the eluant as fractions. RNA was purified from each fraction and a Northern blot conducted as outlined above. Cyclophilin mRNA and ferritin mRNA distribution were determined for comparison cyclophilin is not translationally regulated whereas ferritin is translationally regulated, but only in the presence of supplemental iron....

Cariogenicity Potential Of Stevioside

In addition to their use in calorie control and for diabetics, alternative sweeteners offer another benefit in maintaining good dental health by reducing the intake of sucrose (Grenby 1997). Pure stevioside and rebaudioside A were tested for cariogenicity in an albino rat model at the College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago. In this study, 60 Sprague-Dawley rats were colonized with Streptococcus sobrinus and divided into groups fed basal diet 2,000 supplemented with either 0.5 stevioside, 0.5 rebaudioside A, 30 sucrose, or with no test compound at all. All four groups were sacrificed after five weeks of feeding, and viable S. sobrinus counts enumerated and caries evaluated according to Keyes' technique. It was concluded that stevioside and rebaudioside were not cariogenic under the conditions of the study (Das et al. 1992). In a more recent in vitro study, the eight sweet constituents of S. rebaudiana (stevioside, rebaudiosides A E, dulcoside A, steviolbioside) and two...

Mitochondrial preparation

Rat liver mitochondria were prepared by differential Centrifugation, following the method of Chappell and Hansford5. Briefly, male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were anaesthetised with a mixture of Ketavet and Rompun and rapidly exsanguinated. Livers were rapidly removed and homogenised in a medium containing 250 mM sucrose, 5 mM Tris and 1 mM EGTA, pH 7.4, and mitochondria were separated by differential centrifugation. After centrifugation, the mitochondrial pellet was resuspended in 1-2 ml of a medium (KSH) containing 150 mM KCl, 25 mM sucrose, 5 mM Mg2+ and 2.7 mM HEPES, pH 7.2. The mitochondrial protein content was determined by the biuret method' using bovine serum albumin as standard.

Measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential AP

Mitochondria (lmg ml) were incubated in 195 mM mannitol, 65 mM sucrose and 3 mM HEPES, pH 7.2 ,containing 13.3 M rotenone. After energishg mitochondria with 10 mM succinate (K+ salt), 50 M Ca2+ was added, followed, at steady-state Ca2+ accumulation, by addition of 5 mM Pi The mitochondrial A was measured by using a methyltriphenylphospho-nium (TPMP+)-selective electrode to monitor the distribution of the permeant lipophilic cation TPMP+ across the mitochondrial inner

Assembly of the C1QTNF5 gC1q Domain

The C1QTNF5 gC1q domain shows significant homology to several other members of the gC1q TNF superfamily, such as the complement C1q component, ACRP30, Emilin, and type VIII and X short-chain collagens. To further investigate whether the gC1q domain of C1QTNF5 can form homo-multimers, similar to other members of the C1q TNF super-family, the purified gC1q domain was analysed by sucrose gradient sedimentation. The results showed that two distinct peaks as judged by sucrose gradient sedimentation, corresponding to gC1q domains with the molecular mass of gC1q trimers ( 96kDa, major peak) and hexamers ( 192kDa, minor peak) (Fig. 7.2). Systematic examination of the mobility of native wildtype gC1q domain protein using non-denaturing PAGE gels of different porosity (6, 8, 10 and 12 acrylamide concentration), compared with molecular weight standards (a-lactalbumin, carbonic anhydrase, chicken egg albumin, bovine serum albumin, urease), again showed molecular sizes consistent with a native...

Nutrition for a Healthy Heart

Many healthy-heart diets and foods have a reduced fat content but, in most instances, have replaced fat with sugar and, even worse, refined sugar. As fat intake has decreased, refined sugar and processed grain intake has skyrocketed. The average American consumes more than 150 pounds of added refined sugar every year.

Alcohol Animal Studies

Several SSRIs including zimelidine, norzimelidine and fluoxetine have been shown to decrease alcohol consumption in alcohol-trained rats in a free-choice environment.57-59 This effect could occur without significant effects on body weight, total fluid intake or intake of sucrose solution.58 Drugs with major effects on noradrenaline reuptake (amitriptyline, desipramine, doxepin) did not affect alcohol consumption.57 Similarly, in rats specially bred for alcohol preference, fluoxetine inhibited intragastric self-administration of alcohol. Treatment with the 5-HT precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan,51,60,61 and with 5-HT-releasing agents such as d-fenfluramine51 likewise reduced alcohol consumption. The magnitude of these effects varied between different studies but, with SSRIs, was generally of the order of 40-50 reduction, both in alcohol preference over water and in total alcohol consumption.51 In all these investigations the effects of SSRIs were immediate, occurring on the first day of...

Acute ethanol administration

For the plasma kinetic studies, groups of rats , (6 in each group), were injected with either lg kg or 2 g kg ethanol, blood was removed by cardiac puncture at 20, 40, 80 120 and 240 minutes, placed in tubes either with sodium fluoride for ethanol estimation or heparinised tubes for amino acid analysis. The rats were then killed by cervical dislocation, the brains removed and homogenised in 0.25M sucrose and ethanol content assayed.

Dissolved Organic Matter

Biofilms readily develop on the surfaces of leaves and wood. Microbial biomass and exoen-zyme accumulation were greater on wood (icecream sticks of white birch) than sugar maple leaves in a boreal river in upper New York State (Golladay and Sinsabaugh 1991), suggesting that wood may be an important site of biofilm development in streams. McNamara and Leff (2004) tested the response of several bacteria species to leachate from sugar maple leaves at various stages of decomposition using an agar substrate that allowed the leachate to diffuse through filters on which bacteria were enumerated. Species differed in their response to components of leaf leachate such as tolerance to phenolic compounds, demonstrating how the composition of microbial assemblage can influence its ability to utilize the mixture of labile, refractory, and inhibitory compounds. Measurements of uptake of tree-tissue leachate in streambed sediments within recirculating mesocosms found that most DOC was bioavailable,...

Monocarboxylic Acid Transport Systems

The monocarboxylic acid transporters at the BBB transport lactate and pyruvate, short chain monocarboxylic acids such as acetate, and ketone bodies such as y-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, which are essential for brain metabolism (4). Some types of acidic drug bearing a monocarboxylic acid moiety can cross the BBB via the monocarboxylic acid transport system(s). Use of the in vivo carotid artery injection technique and in vitro primary-cultured bovine BCECs disclosed a significant competitive inhibitory effect of salicylic acid and valproic acid on the transport of 3H acetic acid, whereas di- and tricarboxylic acids, amino acids, and choline were not inhibitory (36, 37). Pharmacologically active forms of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors such as lipophilic 14C simvastatin acid (the most lipophilic derivative), lovastatin acid, and hydrophilic pravastatin, all of which contain a carboxylic acid moiety, are transported by proton monocar-boxylate...

Chemical compounds affecting firmness the example of Japanese pear

Japanese pears have a water content of around 90 . The fruit of Japanese pear contains four constituent sugars namely sucrose, glucose, fructose, and sorbitol (Tanaka and Kojima, 1996 cited from Yamaki et al., 1979a). Yamaki et al. (1979a) stated that, as the fruit ripens, the total sugar concentration increases gradually, but changes in the concentration of each sugar do not occur at the same time. In the Japanese pear, photosynthesis products translocate to fruits as sorbitol, and young fruits store sorbitol during the cellular division stage. At this stage sorbitol concentration was the highest and the sucrose concentration was the lowest. After a cell thickening stage, sorbitol is metabolized vigorously to fructose and glucose, which are stored as starch. In the ripening stage, a climacteric rise occurs, starch decreases, and sucrose increases. Fructose attained the highest concentration, followed by sorbitol, sucrose and glucose. Thus the changes in concentration of each sugar...

Host Cell Recognition and Penetration

F X174 attaches to host cells via a sugar molecule in lipopo-lysaccharides (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria (47, 73, 76, 79, 80). Bacterial strains that do not produce LPS containing specific terminal glucose and galactose molecules are resistant to f X174 infection (47). The E. coli gene rfab, located in the rfa cluster at 81 minutes, most likely encodes the requisite LPS biosynthetic enzyme (109). In solving the atomic structure of the fX174 virion, the crystallized particles were purified in sucrose gradients (92-94). As a result of this technique, glucose molecules were visualized bound to the coat protein in a defined position. The genes and gene products of f X174 are given in table 11-1. The six residues that constitute this binding site are strongly conserved in the other coliphage Microviridae (52, 83). More sophisticated

Toxicity Of Hyperoxia To The Retina Evidence From The Mouse

Experiments were conducted according to protocols approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the The University of Sydney and The Australian National University. C57BL 6J mice were raised from birth in dim cyclic light (12h 5 lux, 12h darkness). Animals were exposed to hyperoxia by placing them, in their cages, into a plexiglass chamber in which the concentration of oxygen was increased from normal (21 ) to 75 , by a feedback controlled device (OXYCYCLER, Biospherix, Redfield, NY). The periods of exposure used were 0 w (controls), 1w, 2w, 3w, 4w, 5w and 6 w. In addition, several animals were exposed to 75 oxygen for 3w or 4w and then returned to room air for 1w or 2w. Animals were euthanised with an overdose of anaesthetic (sodium pentobarbitone, 60mg kg) or of halothane, followed by cervical dislocation. Eyes were immersion-fixed in 4 paraformaldehyde for 2h, then cryo-protected by immersion in 15 sucrose overnight and were cryo-sectioned at 20 mm. Sections were placed onto glass...

Negative Affect Hypothesis

Examination of the relation between hostility and lifestyle factors, Musante et al. (1992) found some support for this alternative hypothesis. Increased hostility was related to poorer health habits, including consumption of a less healthy diet (increased fat and sugar consumption accompanied by decreased fiber intake) and a greater tendency to smoke cigarettes. Data from the cardia Study support these conclusions as well, with hostility being associated with higher frequency of smoking cigarettes and marijuana as well as consumption of a higher number of calories (Scherwitz et al., 1992). Finally, prospective links between measures of hostility taken during the undergraduate years and health behaviors in adulthood have provided additional evidence for this hypothesis. Data from the UNC Alumni Heart Study showed that high hostility during young adulthood was associated with increased smoking and consumption of alcohol and a high-fat diet, obesity, and low social support at midlife...

Copper Bioavailability

It has been known for years that dietary sucrose or fructose intensifies the effects of low dietary Cu intakes in laboratory animals such as the rat.22-24 Some evidence suggests that dietary fructose reduces the absorption of Cu from the gut of rats by lowering the solubility of Cu in the gut lumen.25-27 Fructose is a reducing agent, and other reducing factors such as ascorbic acid have been found to lower Cu absorption as well.28 The detrimental effects of fructose on Cu metabolism have not been successfully demonstrated for other species including the pig or human.29-31 Nonetheless, with the ever-increasing use of high-fructose syrups in foods, including some sports beverages, there may be some concern in the future about the effects of long-term use of this carbohydrate on Cu metabolism in athletes.

Preparation of Bovine ROS and Fractionation of DRMs from ROS Incubated with and without Methylb Cyclodextrin MCD

Bovine ROS were prepared from retinas on continuous sucrose gradients (25-50 ) using a modification of the method of Zimmerman and Godchaux (Godchaux, III and Zimmerman, 1979 Zimmerman and Godchaux, III, 1982) as previously described (Bell et al., 1999). DRMs were prepared according to a previously described modification (Elliott et al., 2003) of the method of Seno et al. (Seno et al., 2001). For experiments involving cholesterol depletion, ROS, in buffer B, were incubated in the presence or absence of 15mM MCD for 1 h at 37 C prior to DRM fractionation as previously described (Elliott et al., 2003).

Localization of IRb and p85 to DRMs Isolated from Bovine ROS

Low buoyant-density DRMs were isolated from Triton-solubilized bovine ROS by discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation and fractions collected from the top of the gradients were subjected to SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analysis. Protein determinations of these fractions indicate the presence of two protein peaks, the minor DRM peak in Figure 68.1. Effect of MCD on the localization of caveolin-1 and other ROS proteins in low-buoyant-density DRMs. ROS incubated in the absence (-MCD) or presence (+MCD) of 15mM MCD were solubilized with 1 Triton X-100 and separated into low and high-density fractions by discontinuous sucrose density gradient cen-trifugation. Fractions collected from the top of each gradient (top to bottom shown from left to right) were subjected to either protein determination (A) or Western blot analysis (B) with antibodies against IR 3, p85 subunit of PI3K, and caveolin-1. Figure 68.1. Effect of MCD on the localization of caveolin-1 and other ROS proteins in...

Preparation of the retinal membrane homogenate and isolated rod outer segments

Tissue samples were prepared as described previously9. Briefly, retinal tissue was teased out of the eye cup in 0.32 M sucrose while on ice. The tissue was centrifuged for 15 minutes at 16,000 x g, washed in 20 mM bicarbonate, recentrifuged as before and then washed in sodium-bicarbonate buffer NaHCO3, 50 mM, NaCl, 50 mM KCl, 50 mM KH2PO4, 1.2 mM MgCl2, 2 mM10 with CaCl2 added to a final concentration of 10 M. The tissue was recentrifuged, resuspended in sodium bicarbonate-CaCl2 buffer and gently homogenized. For the isolation of rod outer segments (ROS), 0.3 M mannitol was used instead of 0.32 M sucrose. Retinal tissue was dissected out as before and

Estimated Requirements

Foods such as mushrooms, nuts, whole grains and processed meats, as well as wine and beer, are good sources of Cr. On the other hand, foods high in simple sugars such as fructose are low in Cr content and actually promote Cr losses.15 In 1989, the National Research Council recommended that the estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intake (ESADDI) for Cr to be between 50 and 200 g per day.16 In 2001, the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences redefined the daily adequate intake of Cr to 35 g per day for adult males and 25 g per day for adult females.1718 These guidelines are supported by various research. Anderson and Kozlovsky18 analyzed the self-selected diets of free-living American adults and determined an average daily intake of Cr of 33 g for males and 25 g for females. Additional research by the same researchers18 reports adults living in the United Kingdom, Canada, Finland and New Zealand also fail to meet the ESADDI minimum requirement of 50 g of...

Rebaudioside Aenriched stevia extract

Among the sweet glycosides of S. rebaudiana leaves, rebaudioside A is the most potent sweet principle and has the most sucrose-like taste. 'Rebaudioside A-enriched stevia extract' is prepared from the leaves of an improved variety of S. rebaudiana containing greater proportions of rebaudioside A. Of the two commercialized types of'rebaudioside A-enriched stevia extract', one is produced in the usual manner according to the method ofproduction of'stevia extract', and the other is further purified by subsequent recrystallization. In the Voluntary Specifications of Non-chemically Synthesized Food Additives (Second Edition 1993), these products are classified as 'stevia extracts'.

Turgor Pressure Responses To Wall Antibiotics

Figure 19.7 Two classes of cell pressure responses in cells treated with and without ampicillin. Ancylobacter aquaticus cells were examined in the described light scattering apparatus. Without ampicillin treatment initially the vesicle collapse curve was monophasic like that marked with sucrose but required a higher pressure for collapse. After 20 minutes of treatment with ampicillin, the curve changed to the bi-phasic one marked without sucrose . Figure 19.7 Two classes of cell pressure responses in cells treated with and without ampicillin. Ancylobacter aquaticus cells were examined in the described light scattering apparatus. Without ampicillin treatment initially the vesicle collapse curve was monophasic like that marked with sucrose but required a higher pressure for collapse. After 20 minutes of treatment with ampicillin, the curve changed to the bi-phasic one marked without sucrose . from a monophasic to a biphasic shape. From the pressure at the midpoint of the two components,...

Reagents Buffers and Media

Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium 4.4 g L of MS salts (Sigma, St. Louis, MO cat. no. M5524), 0.5 g l (3 mM) MES buffer, pH 5.7, 1 sucrose, 0.8 bacto agar. 4. Infiltration medium 4.3 g L MS salts, 5 sucrose, 44 nM benzylaminop-urine, 0.01 Silwet L-77 detergent (pH 5.6 with KOH). 5. BY2 medium 4.3 g L MS salts, 0.1 g L thiamine, 10 mg L myo-inositol, 0.21 g L KH2PO4, 0.2 ig mL 2,4-D, 3 sucrose (pH 5.6 with KOH).

Results And Discussion

Sucrose +Composition of mineral mixture, g kg mixture CaHPO4 500g, NaCl 74g, K2SO4 52g, Potassium citrate monohydrate 220g, MgO 24g, Manganous carbonate (43-48 Mn) 3.5g, Ferric citrate (16-17 Fe) 6g, Zinc carbonate 1.6g, Cupric carbonate (53-55 Cu) 0.3g, KIO3 0.01g, Chromium potassium sulfate 0.55g, Na2SeO3 0.01g, Sucrose to 1kg.

In Vitro Propagation And Secondary Metabolite Production In Crocus Sativus L

ABSTRACT The sterile Crocus sativus has a low vegetative propagation rate. Tissue culture techniques were used for rapid propagation of newly introduced varieties and production of pathogen-free corms through organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. Explants isolated from cauline, foliar and floral tissues were grown on different culture media for the culture initiation stage, the proliferation stage and the hardening, rooting and corming stage. Plant growth regulators, sucrose, active charcoal, coconut milk and ascorbic acid, were employed in the culture media. Callus induced from shoot and corm tissues formed globular embryonic tissues which differentiated into embryoid and matured into plants. Apical and lateral buds regenerated shoots, which developed into microcorms on a 6 sucrose GBR2 free medium. In the presence of IAA and ZN, embryoids were formed, yet without further development. Corm tissue formed callus and buds which developed into plantlets, or directly into minicorms....

Bud And Meristem Culture Of Saffron Crocus

Buds and the corm meristem tissue were used as a source of explants for in vitro propagation. These were found to respond along two developmental pathways either organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis. Shoot meristems 8-10 mm long with two leaf primordia, isolated from small corms, developed a callus on LS medium with BAP and NAA. The callus formed globular embryogenic tissue which differentiated into embryoid when subcultured onto half-strength MS medium devoid of growth regulators. The embryoids matured into plants only in the presence of BAP, NAA and 2 activated charcoal (Ahuja et al. 1994). In another report, the explants from the corm meristem tissue developed callus in a medium with 2, 4-D and redifferentiated into globular embryos in the presence of IAA and KN with ascorbic acid added to the medium. Further embryo development occurred, however, on half-strength MS minerals in a liquid medium with ABA. The callus also regenerated adventitious buds which developed into plants...

Summary And Conclusions

Korea does not produce sucrose from either sugar cane or sugar beet grown domestically. Thus, it has become necessary to investigate alternative sweeteners that can be substituted for sugar. Among these alternative sweeteners, stevioside is considered as a promising sucrose substitute. Stevia rebaudiana, the source of stevioside, was introduced to Korea in 1973 and the use of stevioside as a sweetener has been permitted since 1984. Thus, there has been a significant effort to cultivate S. rebaudiana in Korea. Presently, stevioside occupies 40 of the sweetener market in Korea and it is being used more broadly in the food industry as a sugar substitute than any other alternative sweetener in products such as ice cream, ice cakes, confectioneries, gum, pickles, sauces, non-caloric diet foods, and beverages. In particular, 50 of the total consumption of stevioside in Korea is made through in the alcoholic liquor, soju. Although stevioside has been highlighted as an alternative sweetener...

Mien T G van de Ven Patrick G Lanham and Rex M Brennan

Extraction buffer 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 7 mMNa2EDTA, 0.35M sucrose 5 mM p-mercaptoethanol (BME) (see Note 3) (add after buffer has been autoclaved and cooled), 0.1 bovine serum albumin (BSA) (add after buffer has been autoclaved and cooled). 16. Wash buffer 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0,20 mMNa2EDTA, 0.35M sucrose. 17. Sucrose buffers 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 7 mMNa2EDTA, adjusted with sucrose to the required percentage of 20, 45, or 60. As mentioned previously, many different protocols for the isolation of cpDNA exist. In the majority of these, intact chloroplasts are first isolated, from which the cpDNA is extracted. It is also possible to extract total cellular DNA and purify the cpDNA by CsCl-gradients (11). Fresh, young, and healthy leaves, sometimes grown at low light intensity or dark (to prevent starch accumulation) seem to be a prerequisite for good chloroplast yields (10,20), although cell suspension cultures (21) and freeze-dried material (22,23) have also been used for the...

Background To Stevia Sweetener Development In Japan

While stevia extract has a relatively quick onset of sweetness compared to glycyrrhizin, it is inferior to sucrose in its unpleasant sweetness aftertaste and bitterness. In order to reduce the aftertaste of stevia extract, a number of studies focused on the purification, formulation, and enzymatic modification of stevia sweeteners as well as on the breeding of S. rebaudiana. The result was enzymatically modified 'sugar-transferred stevia extract' and 'rebaudioside A-enriched stevia extract' which were commercialized as more sucrose-like sweeteners in terms of their taste. These improved stevia sweeteners could be used as sweeteners preferably for drinks and have come to be applied extensively in confectionery, ice cream, sherbet, dairy products, table-top sweeteners, etc. The use of 'rebaudioside A-enriched stevia extract' in the Progress in the utilization of stevia sweeteners in Japan has continued due to a number of extensive studies on the chemistry, safety, stability, and...

Kidney Diseases and Diuretics

Injection into the blood stream of substances that are not easily reabsorbed by the renal tubules, such as urea, mannitol, and sucrose, causes a marked increase in the concentration of osmotically active molecules in the tubules. The osmotic pressure of these solutes then greatly reduces water reabsorption, flushing large amounts of tubular fluid into the urine.

Release of Energy from Glucose by the Pentose Phosphate Pathway

Release of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen by Means of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway. Figure 67-8 shows most of the basic chemical reactions in the pentose phosphate pathway. It demonstrates that glucose, during several stages of conversion, can release one molecule of carbon dioxide and four atoms of hydrogen, with the resultant formation of a five-carbon sugar, d-ribulose. This substance can change progressively into several other five-, four-, seven-, and three-carbon sugars. Finally, various combinations of these sugars can resynthesize glucose. However, only five molecules of glucose are resynthe-sized for every six molecules of glucose that initially enter into the reactions. That is, the pentose phosphate pathway is a cyclical process in which one molecule of glucose is metabolized for each revolution of the cycle. Thus, by repeating the cycle again and again, all the glucose can eventually be converted into carbon dioxide and hydrogen, and the hydrogen can enter the oxidative...

Approaches to Intelligence

An alternative approach to studying the brain suggests that neural efficiency may be related to intelligence such an approach is based on studies of how the brain metabolizes glucose (simple sugar required for brain activity) during mental activities. Richard Haier and colleagues (Haier et al., 1992) cited several other researchers who support their own findings that higher intelligence correlates with reduced levels of glucose metabolism during problem-solving tasks -that is, smarter brains consume less sugar (and hence expend less effort) than do less smart brains doing the same task. Furthermore, Haier and colleagues found that cerebral efficiency increases as a result of learning on a relatively complex task involving visu-ospatial manipulations (the computer game Tetris). As a result of practice, more intelligent participants show not only lower cerebral glucose metabolism overall but also more specifically localized metabolism of glucose. In most areas of their brains, smarter...

Rubusoside as the starting material

Rubusoside (7), a congener of stevioside (1) with one less sugar unit, was also treated with the CGTase-starch system,to undergo trans-a-1,4-glucosylation. From the reaction mixture, mono- (R1a and R1b), di- (R2a, R2b, and R2c),tri- (R3a, R3b, R3c, and R3d) and three of five tetraglucosylated products (R4a, R4b, and R4e) were separated (Darise et al. 1984) and identified (Figure 7.8) (Ohtani et al. 1991a).Two of the tetraglucosylated products (R4c and R4d) were difficult to purify and were obtained as a mixture. Strong enhancement of the intensity of sweetness was observed for the products R2a, R3a, R3b, and R4b which were di- or triglucosylated at the 13-O-glucosyl moiety. On the other hand, tetraglucosylation at the 13-O-glucosyl moiety as well as glucosylation at the 19-O-glucosyl moiety led to a decrease in the intensity of sweetness.These results were similar to the case of stevioside (1) as the starting material, and strongly suggested that for enhancement of the intensity of...

Comparison Of Stevioside To Other Natural Product Highintensity Sweetening Agents

In 1998, the artificial sweetener market in the United States was worth about 610 million, and this is scheduled to increase 3.4 per year to 720 million by 2003 (Seewald 2000). There remains a strong demand for highly sweet, non-caloric, and non-cariogenic substances to substitute for sucrose in the diet. Such compounds, whether natural or synthetic, should exhibit a sucrose-like taste, and should also lack any offensive odor, exhibit satisfactory water solubility and hydrolytic and thermal stability, and should not be toxic or cariogenic, either in their unmodified or metabolized forms. Moreover, to be commercially viable, candidate sucrose substitutes should be relatively easy to manufacture or cultivate, and should fit in with the existing applications for other sweeteners (Hough et al. 1979). With the recent approval of sucralose in 1998, there are now four synthetic 'high-intensity' sweeteners on the market in the United States, with the others being aspartame, acesulfame...

Application frozen berries and jams 1641 Potential techniques for berries

According to microscopical studies the pre-treatments with calcium chloride and crystallized sucrose as well as with CaCl2 and PME in a vacuum influence the microstructure of strawberry tissues. These pre-treatments especially affect pectin, protein, lignin and structural carbohydrates in the vascular tissue and cortex when compared to the untreated reference samples. The use of a vacuum appears to make the cortex and pitch absorb the pre-treatment solutions more efficiently thus improving the stabilization particularly of pectin and structural carbohydrates (Suutarinen, 2002). Micrographs of the strawberry cortical and vascular tissues of the untreated reference and the CaCl2- and PME-treated strawberries in a vacuum after pectin staining, are shown in Fig. 16.2 (Suutarinen et al., 2000). Firmness of thawed strawberries pretreated with CaCl2 and PME in a vacuum is more than twice as high as that of other pre-treated or untreated berries (Fig. 16.3) (Suutarinen et al., 2002a). High...

Methods And Materials

Confluent cell layers were washed once with Hank's buffered saline and released with trypsin. The cells were collected by centrifugation, washed twice with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and once with isotonic sucrose solution (0.35 M). The cell pellet was dissolved in a sample buffer containing 7 M urea, 2 M thiourea, 4 3 - (3 -Cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio -1 -propanesulfonate (CHAPS), 0.3

Application of NIR to fruit and vegetables

The measurement of firmness of nectarine flesh by NIR has also been reported (Costa et al, 2000). Although the reference method was not described in detail and so the units of measurement and their errors may not be readily understood, an R2 of 0.75 was reported which indicates some potential for rapid grading or screening applications. Nevertheless, such squared correlation coefficients should be recognised as being at the lower end of acceptability for NIR calibration performance. It was interesting to note, however, that the performance for measurement of flesh firmness was superior to that for Brix (the sucrose by weight of a solution at a given temperature) which, being dependent on the composition of the fruits, may have been expected to exhibit better performance than measures of texture.

Head Structure and Assembly

Complement (50, 231, 232, 276, 278, 289). Electron microscopy shows that there are three main head length classes, whereas widths are usually the same. Normal, elongated (giant), and isometric T4 heads are all 85 nm wide (104). The T4 variant containing 0.68 normal DNA length appears structurally isometric (T 13, Q 13). The head length classes fit Q numbers of 13 for isometric (0.68 DNA length) phages, 17 and 18 (0.85 and 0.90 DNA lengths) for intermediates, and 21 for normal DNA length phages (illustrated in figure 18-7). Fractional DNA lengths, measured by sucrose gradient sedimentation and by genetic methods (276, 289), or by gel electrophoresis (231, 232), fit the model that these DNA molecules fill the head volume. These shorter and longer head lengths are related to the basic mechanism determining T4 head length (231, 232, 267). The surface lattice design was determined directly from cryo-electron micrographs of isometric heads (176, 311) following earlier studies on phage T2...

Gene expression in the renal papilla of rats undergoing diuresis and antidiuresis

The osmolarity of excreted urine was experimentally modified by submitting the rats to diuresis followed by antidiuresis. The rats were given water containing 10 sucrose for 10 days. This treatment brought about chronic diuresis. The animals excreted large volumes of diluted urine. Half of the rats were maintained under a similar diuresis while the other half were submitted to water deprivation for 2 days. This treatment brought about antidiuresis. The animals excreted small volumes of concentrated urine. In the renal papilla of the anitidiuretic rats a similar between 1.5 to 3 fold increase in mRNA levels of TauT, CDO, CSD, SMIT, BGTl and AR was observed when compared to the corresponding levels in diuretic rats (Fig 4).

Rubusoside and related glycosides from Rubus suavissimus

Rebaudioside Structure

In a continuation oftheir search for natural sweeteners,Tanaka et al. (1981) isolated rubusoside (7 steviol 13,19-di-O- -D-glucoside) from the leaves of a type of the Chinese raspberry, R. suavissimus S.Lee (Rosaceae). Although Rubus is taxonomically distinct from Stevia (Compositae), the structure of 7 was identical with the intermediate obtained from the synthesis of rebaudioside A (2) from stevioside (1) (see Figure 7.2). Rubusoside (7) tastes sweet, but the magnitude of sweetness is not high relative sweetness to sucrose (RS) 114 , and the hedonic quality quality of taste (QT) is not good. From the same species, Hirono et al. (1990) and Ohtani et al. (1992) isolated a number of other related diterpene glycosides, namely, a series of suaviosides (8 41). In Figure 7.3 (A C), the structures and tastes of these compounds are shown.

Hydrolysis of Disaccharides and Small Glucose Polymers into Monosaccharides by Intestinal Epithelial Enzymes

Enterocytes lining the villi of the small intestine contain four enzymes (lactase, sucrase, maltase, and a-dextrinase), which are capable of splitting the disac-charides lactose, sucrose, and maltose, plus other small glucose polymers, into their constituent monosaccha-rides.These enzymes are located in the enterocytes covering the intestinal microvilli brush border, so that the disaccharides are digested as they come in contact with these enterocytes. Lactose splits into a molecule of galactose and a molecule of glucose. Sucrose splits into a molecule of fructose and a molecule of glucose. Maltose and other small glucose polymers all split into multiple molecules of glucose. Thus, the final products of carbohydrate digestion are all monosaccharides. They are all water soluble and are absorbed immediately into the portal blood. Maltose and 3 to 9 glucose polymers Lactose Sucrose Maltose and 3 to 9 glucose polymers Lactose Sucrose

Dennis H Bamford Jaana K H Bamford

PM2 is the first bacteriophage in which the presence of lipids in the virion was firmly demonstrated (7, 15). The mass of the virion ( 4.5 x 107 Da) is distributed among nucleic acid (14 ), lipid (14 ), and protein (72 ) constituents (8, 9). The sedimentation coefficient (S20,w) of the particle is 293 S and buoyant density in sucrose and cesium chloride is 1.26 g cm3 and 1.28 g cm3, respectively (8, 26). The stability of the virion is dependent on sodium and calcium ions and the virion equilibrated in sucrose is inactive (26). The viral membrane is located internally (7, 20) and it forms, together with the phage-encoded membrane-associated proteins and the phage DNA, a lipid core particle (25). An icosahedrally ordered capsid, about 60 nm in diameter, surrounds the lipid core. Thus the overall architecture of PM2 resembles that of bacteriophage PRD1, a tectivirus, which has a membrane vesicle surrounding the linear double-stranded DNA genome and an outer icosahedral capsid of...

Approaches to Taxus plant tissue culture

T. chinensis The effects of both initial sucrose concentration and sucrose feeding on cell growth and accumulation of taxane T. media The effects of phenylalanine, sucrose, and mannitol on the growth and production of baccatin III, 10-deacetyl- the sugar consumption curve, the PO43-consumption curve, the pH curve and protein contents curve, and the taxol contents in cells curve were studied.

Space Flight Environment Induces Degeneration In The Retina Of Rat Neonates

The anterior segment of each eye was removed with a sharp razor blade and the posterior segment cryoprotected overnight in 30 sucrose. The eyecups were place in freezing molds containing 100 OCT and frozen overnight at -80 . Samples were cryosectioned at 15 mm and thawed onto subbed slides. Sections were stained with hematoxylin eosin for five minutes at room temperature. After rinsing, sections were dehydrated, cleared, and mounted. Sections were viewed with brightfield and DIC optics using a Zeiss microscope.

Properties Of Stevia Sweeteners

Although stevia sweeteners possess a slightly latent sweetness compared to sucrose, their use has been developing steadily.The wide use of stevia sweeteners is due to various characteristics as follows 1 Approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose and costing comparatively less than sugar 2 Sweetness-quality superior to sucrose in mildness and refreshment

Stevia Extract Granular Mail

Granulated sugar (sucrose) The sweetness properties of'sugar-transferred stevia extract' and 'rebaudioside A-enriched stevia extract' are similar to that of sucrose. The present developments in the use of stevia sweeteners are due to the use of these two preparations in non-salted foods and beverages. Table 9.9 shows a formulation example each for bread and a carbonated drink. Although these sweeteners replace up to about 50 of the sweetness of sugar, their demand is currently increasing for use in modifying the taste of foods. The plain and simple sweetness is suitable for the sour taste of low sugar yogurt. In sugarless foods and drinks, combinations with sugar alcohols are increasing. For example, the sweetness of sugarless chewing gum is created by combining maltitol (having a good sweetness-body), erythritol (having a refreshing sweetness), and stevia sweeteners (having a durable sweetness). In candies or chewables containing vitamin C, this combination of sweeteners ensures the...

Plateletneutrophil complex formation

(1) This study investigated the capacity for different breast milk fractions to influence the processes of adhesion involved in endothelial -leukocyte interactions and in platelet-neutrophil complex formation. Both adhesive models require selectins, integrins and members of the immunoglobulin superfamily. We found that purified neutral oligosaccharides had the capacity to inhibit binding of neutrophils to TNF stimulated endothelium. The model used examined adhesion under low flow conditions and so it is difficult to be exactly certain how these sugars were operating. It is probable that selectin mediated adhesion was most effected but further studies are required to examine this further.

Recent Advances In Destreaking Techniques

The cytosolic fraction of liver tissue was isolated from fresh human liver (a generous gift from Dr. C. Max Schmidt, Departments of Surgery and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Cancer Research Institute) by differential centrifugation. Liver was homogenized in a buffer containing 0.25 M sucrose and 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, and centrifuged at 100,000g for 45 minutes using a Beckman Type 45 Ti Rotor. Protein denaturation, solubilization, and reduction were performed in a portion of the supernate (cytosol) by the addition of urea, (CHAPS), and DTT. Carrier ampholyte (pH 3-10) was also added. The final concentrations for these reagents were 9 M urea, 4 CHAPS, 65 mM DTT, and 0.5 pH 3-10 ampholyte. Another portion of the supernate was subjected to the same

Culture Plate Impactions And Liquid Impingers

A necessary requirement for the use of culture plate impactors is the choice of an appropriate medium for the growth of fungi or bacteria being studied. Xerotolerant fungi are often collected on media such as dichloran glycerol (DG-18) or Czapek yeast autolysate agar with 40 sucrose.18'53 Malt extract agar (MEA no dextrose or peptone as recommended by Flannigan)18'54 is a general-purpose culture medium used for the collection of a wide range of fungi, including hydrophilic species. Cornmeal and cellulose agars are used where the primary intent of sampling is to detect cellulose degrading fungi.18

Adsorptive Mediated Endocytosis

Several studies have been done on AME of neuropharmaceutical pep-tides, which have the characteristics of stability to enzymes and cationic charge as a consequence of suitable chemical modifications of the native peptides. Ebiratide a synthetic peptide analogous to adrenocorticotropic hormone that is used to treat Alzheimer's disease, is positively charged with an isoelectric point of 10, and its resistance to metabolism has been enhanced by chemical modifications of the constituent natural amino acids. The internaliza-tion of 125I ebiratide was saturable in primary cultures of bovine BCECs. Furthermore, the characteristics of its internalization were consistent with AME in various respects, including energy dependence and the inhibitory effects of polycationic peptides and endocytosis inhibitors (7, 61, 67). To prove the transcytosis of ebiratide across the BBB, a capillary depletion study and brain microdialysis study were performed (68). After infusion of 125I ebiratide or 14C...

The Crosslinked Fabriclike Structure Of The Bacterial Wall

Figure 6.1 The penta-muropeptide of E. coli and B. subtilis. The partially stretched molecular molecule (Koch, 2000) is shown. The right-hand side ends in the disaccharide portion. These sugars allow it to be inserted and to extend the glycan chain. The left-hand side has two ends. One branch ends in a D-Ala-D-Ala-. By transpeptidation it can enter into an amide linkage that is almost identical to an ordinary peptide linkage. The other branch ends in a zwitter ion, which is composed of a carboxyl and an amino group. The amino group from one penta-muropeptide may interact with the penultimate D-Alanine from another penta-muropeptide to form a tail-to-tail bond to cross-link the murein. The central region consists of amino acids in peptide linkage. Some of these amino acids are special because they are D instead of l. One amino acid is glutamic acid linked at its y position instead of the usual a linkage. Figure 6.1 The penta-muropeptide of E. coli and B. subtilis. The partially...

Digestion of Carbohydrates

Only three major sources of carbohydrates exist in the normal human diet. They are sucrose, which is the disaccharide known popularly as cane sugar lactose, which is a disaccharide found in milk and starches, which are large polysaccharides present in almost all nonanimal foods, particularly in potatoes and the different types of grains. Other carbohydrates ingested to a slight extent are amylose, glycogen, alcohol, lactic acid, pyruvic acid, pectins, dextrins, and minor quantities of carbohydrate derivatives in meats.


It is remarkable that S. rebaudiana accumulates in its leaves such high levels of the most abundant sweet diterpene glycosides, stevioside and rebaudioside A, given that plant leaves are not normally regarded as storage organs for secondary metabolites. This phenomenon is all the more unusual because only one other species in the genus Stevia has ever been reported to biosynthesize sweet-tasting ent-kaurene constituents, namely, S. phlebophylla (Kinghorn et al. 1984). Accordingly, if S. rebaudiana were not such a chemotaxonomic curiosity, and unless stevioside and rebaudioside A did not possess such potent sweetness intensities relative to sucrose, there would be no widespread commercial use of S. rebaudiana products as sucrose substitutes, since they would not be cost effective. As has been pointed out in this chapter, and as will be elaborated on later in this book, a great deal of technical ingenuity has been applied in Japan towards improving the sweetness pleasantness of...

Animals and diets

C57BL 6J female mice were obtained from Charles River Japan (Atsugi, Japan). The regular chow and high-fat diet were purchased from the Oriental Yeast Co. (Tokyo, Japan). The high-fat diet was prepared by mixing a diet containing 30 cocoa butter, 5 cholesterol, 2 sodium cholate, 30 casein, 5 cellulose powder, 4 vitamin mixture, 4 mineral mixture, 6.5 sucrose, 6.5 glucose, 8.5 dextran, and 0.5 choline chloride with standard chow in a ratio of 1 3 parts, respectively, and then pelleting it. This diet has a 15 total fat content, and the cholesterol content was 1.25 . Taurine was dissolved in drinking water at 1 (w v) and was freely available to the mice. This concentration of taurine is equivalent to 1,700 mg kg day, calculated based on the consumption of drinking water.

Systemic Herbicides

Following uptake through the leaves or roots, herbicides may move from cell to cell, and then be carried in the vascular tissues of the plant. The xylem transport system consists of open capillaries, with thickened cell walls. Transport in the xylem is upwards, towards the leaves. Xylem sap rises in response to the loss of water vapour through the open pores of the leaves (transpiration). Phloem transport cells are much smaller than xylem, and still living. Their end-walls are punctuated with obvious openings, giving rise to the terms 'sieve-plate' for the end-wall, and 'sieve tube member' for the cell that carries out translocation. The phloem sieve-tubes normally carry sucrose, amino compounds, organic acids and mineral ions in both directions, and hence to all non-transpiring parts of the plant, such as roots, shoot tips, buds and seeds. If herbicides are transferred into the phloem, they will be carried to every part of the plant. Herbicides (or other pesticides) distributed...

Log Poct

Fig. 1 Plot of CNS permeability against log -Poclanoi. Many solutes (open circles) show a clear correlation between their lipid solubility, determined as log Poct and CNS penetration Suc, sucrose Cre, creatinine PCNU, (1-(2-1-nitrosourea BCNU, Solutes that show an enhanced or depressed uptake at the BBB in relation to their lipid solubility are distinguished as marked outliers on this type of plot (solid circles) and either have a facilitated penetration at the BBB such as D-Glu (D-glucose) or an active efflux from the CNS as in the case of Ble (bleomycin), Adr (Adriamycin), Epi (epipodophyllotoxin etoposide), Cycl (cyclosporin A), and Vcr (vincristine). (Adapted from Ref. 1.)

Moisture Adsorption

RHi and RHo are relative humidity and critical relative humidity, respectively, and C and F are the conductive coefficient and the radiative coefficient, respectively. As shown in Fig. 141,602 Eq. (3.1) described the adsorption of moisture by a sucrose-potassium bromide mixture.

Osmotic dehydration

Air drying can be substituted by (or combined with) osmotic dehydration as a pre-freeze treatment (Torregiani, 2000). This process involves placing the solid food (whole or in pieces) into hypertonic solution, i.e. a high-concentration sugar or salt solution. Osmotic dehydration can be applied either as a separate process or as a processing step in alternative processing schemes leading to a variety of end products (Lazarides, 1994). The selection of the solute for the osmotic solution is based on the sensory characteristics of the product the cost of the solute or solutes and the molecular weight of the solute. The most common solutes used for osmotic dehydration are sodium chloride, sucrose, lactose, high-fructose corn syrup, and glycerol (Barbosa-C novas and Vega-Mercado, 1996). In osmotic dehydration, operating temperatures range from 30 to 80 C. In practical conditions, with anosmotic treatment of 1-2 h at ambient temperature, a solid gain of up to 5-10 can be attained. This gain...

Avoid Alcohol

Alcohol is poorly metabolized in people who are hypothyroid, and puts a strain on the liver. It is also fattening, delivering about 7 calories per gram or 150 calories per drink. A glass of dry red or white wine has calories but no sugar. The same thing goes for cognac, brandy, and dry sherry that contain no sugar. The stiffer the drink, the more calories it contains. Hard liquors such as scotch, rye, gin, and rum are made out of cereal grains vodka, the Russian staple, is made out of potatoes. In this case, the grains ferment into alcohol. Hard liquor averages about 40 percent alcohol but has no sugar. Nevertheless, you're looking at about 100 calories per small shot glass, so long as you don't add fruit juice, tomato, or sugary soft drinks. The bottom line while hypothyroid, avoid or limit alcohol intake as much as possible.

IrawsRal Opsin

Mouse Rdh11 has been cloned as a gene regulated by the transcription factors sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs).15 It is 85 identical to its human ortholog, RDH11, a protein that was first discovered as a gene that is expressed at very high levels in human prostate.16 As revealed by immunofluorescence, Rdh11 is expressed in four layers of the mouse retina, including photoreceptor inner segments.15 Absence of Rdh11 in the outer segment of photoreceptors was confirmed by fractionation of the retina on sucrose gradient, separating the outer segments from the rest of the retina, followed by immunoblot-ting (manuscript submitted for publication). Using a monoclonal antibody generated against human RDH11, immunofluorescence in monkey and bovine eye sections revealed a signal mostly located in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Only a faint signal was detected in photoreceptor inner segments.17 Human and mouse catalytic activities have been characterized in vitro. Both...

Pollen Viability

According to cytochemical tests, most pollen grains from opening anthers exhibit vital activity however, only a few live pollen grains germinate successfully. Germination may be defective with respect to either the protrusion or growth of the pollen tube. In vitro, the most favourable germination has been established in a liquid medium consisting of sucrose and boron (Chichiricco and Grilli Caiola 1982, 1986), in which 20 of the pollen grains showed germinative activity. The in vivo germinability averages 50 , and it persists for several days after pollen dispersion.

Sweetness intensity

The sweetness intensity ofa sweetener varies according to purity, temperature,pH, the content ratio, the presence of other food ingredients, and the concentration of a comparable sugar solution. In general, the sweetness multiples of high-intensity sweeteners maybe presented in terms of relative sweetness to around 2 to 6 sucrose in an aqueous solution. As shown in Table 9.4, in a sensory evaluation of relative sweetness to a 4 sucrose solution by trained taste-panelists at Maruzen Pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd., pure stevioside and rebaudioside A were determined as 160 times and 308 times as sweet as sucrose, respectively (Saizuka 1982 Anonymous 1994). The sweetness multiple of commercialized simple 'stevia extracts' was evaluated to be almost equal to that of isolated stevioside because they usually contain rebaudioside A and other less sweet principles together with about 50 60 stevioside. The sweetness potency of enzymatic a-1, 4-transglucosylated stevia extract is considered to vary...

Taste Perception

It is generally accepted in sensory science that there are four primary tastes that stimulate taste buds at specific areas of the tongue. Each primary taste is designated as such by the responses of taste buds to different chemical stimulants. Studies on single taste buds have demonstrated that most taste buds can be stimulated by more than one primary taste stimulus (Collings, 1974). As a general rule, however, the specificity theory works well for demonstrating the taste sensation of each of the four primary tastes sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. Sweet is the sensation recognised predominantly at the tip of the tongue, salty and sour sensations at the sides, and bitter at the back. The standards used to demonstrate the primary tastes are based on solutions of sucrose (sweet), sodium chloride (salty), citric acid (sour), and quinine sulphate or caffeine (bitter). aversion to sucrose. Science, 496-497. Collings, V. B. (1974). Human taste response as a function of locus on the tongue...

Abiotic Factors

Fungi are achlorophyllous and nonphotosynthetic. Their survival and growth rely heavily on their ability to obtain nutrients, such as sugars, amino acids, vitamins, and macro- and micronutrients, from the substrates. Different species of fungi have different abilities to access and utilize simple or complex forms of carbohydrate, organics, and mineral nutrients.16 Some fungi, such as species of Aspergillus and Penicillium, are called sugar fungi because they are fast-growing and prefer simple sugars. On the other hand, some fungi can break down complex carbohydrates (such as cellulose and lignin) or complex organics (such as wood) to obtain nutrients, and are usually late colonizers of the substrates.17 Decomposition and degradation of a substrate is due to enzyme activities. The types of enzymes required depend on the substrates.16 Moisture. Fungi can utilize organics by secreting enzymes to break down organics into small molecules. Enzymes require water as a solvent for...

Partial air drying

Thawing in fresh and pre-dried strawberries were studied in order to quantify the possible cryoprotective effect of osmotic treatment with sucrose solutions. Good mechanical properties were retained to a higher degree by air drying than osmotic drying however, after freezing-thawing these differences were not significant (Chiralt et al., 2001).


Effect of taurine on mitochondrial swelling induced by P and different concentrations of Ca2+ in the presence of succinate as a respiratory substrate. Mitochondria (0.5 mg ml) were incubated, in medium (195 mM mannitol, 65 mM sucrose, 3 mM HEPES, pH 7.2 ) containing 10 mM succinate (K+salt) plus 13.3 M rotenone, in the absence or inthe presence of taurine. After the absorption stabilised, 10, 25 or 50 M Ca2+was added, followed 2 min later by 5 mM P . Changes in volume of mitochondrial suspensions were monitored with time by measuring the decrease in absorbance at 540 nm. Trace a, control 1 (Ca2+ 50 M + 5 mM Pi) trace b, control 1 + 10 mM taurine trace c, control 2 (Ca2+ 25 _M + 5 mM Pi) trace d, control 2 + 10 mM taurine trace e, control 3 (Ca2+ 10 M+ 5 mM Pi) trace f, control 3 + 10 mM taurine trace g, control 3 +of0.5 M cyclosporin A (CsA) trace h, control 2 + 0.5 M CsA trace i, control 1 + 0.5 M CsA. All traces are representative of 3-5 separate experiments. Figure 3....

Specific Hungers

Many specific hungers or cravings remain unexplained, however. For example, many people report a marked craving for chocolate at certain times. The chocolate craving is particularly common among women around the time of menstruation. One hypothesis has been that chocolate acts as a kind of tranquilizer or in some other way counteracts the discomfort of menstruation and presumably discomfort at other times as well. However, providing either tranquilizers or hormonal treatments does not weaken the chocolate cravings of menstruating women (Michener, Rozin, Freeman, & Gale, 1999). It is possible that people learn a preference for chocolate because of some benefit and then maintain the habit even when it is not needed. However, the data currently available do not explain chocolate cravings.

Risk factor diabetes

Thomas Willis Diabetes

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas and used by the body to regulate glucose (sugar). Diabetes occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin, or cannot use it properly, leading to too much sugar in the blood. Symptoms include thirst, excessive urination, tiredness, and unexplained weight loss.

Sweetness quality

Taste Profile Stevia

Figure 9.3 shows the sweetness-taste profiles of stevioside, rebaudioside A, and other sweeteners including saccharin, sucrose, and glycyrrhizin. When placed in the mouth, stevioside gives a slightly latent sweet sensation with an aftertaste. Nevertheless, the taste profile of stevioside more closely resembles that of sucrose compared with the triterpene glycoside sweetener, glycyrrhizin, and the sweetness quality of stevioside is superior to that of sucrose in mildness and freshness. The commercially available simple sweetener, 'stevia extract' has a slightly latent sweetness as a result of the stevioside content and offers a few problems in its practical use. Comparable sucrose Relatii 'e su 'eetness (to sucrose 1) of Marumilon 50 When the stevia sweetener is used for foods, especially non-salted foods such as confectionery and drinks, it is generally formulated with other sweeteners. It was observed that the sweetness property of stevioside is improved and becomes similar to that...


Cryopreservation protocols that allow maximal recovery and preservation of stem cell properties of proliferation and pluripotency are an important part of maintenance of stem cells. For hES3 cells, ESI International recommends a procedure that was originally used for cryopreserving embryos (35) that uses a combination of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol, and sucrose in vitrification straws rather than cryovials. This is a tedious process that is very difficult to scale up, because only three or four pieces of a colony can be vitrified at one time. The protocol recommended for HSF6 uses a standard procedure of slow freezing in cryovials in a medium containing 10 DMSO, 90 FBS. We have previously developed a method to cryopreserve islets with excellent survival of endocrine cells. This method involves introducing both DMSO and the disaccharide trehalose into the cells during a controlled cooling process (36). Because trehalose had been used successfully to preserve oocytes...