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How Much Physical Fitness is Required for Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Prospective studies performed have demonstrated that even modest increments of physical fitness in obese or type 2 diabetic individuals can reduce by about twofold the risk of overall mortality 37,38 . The results of these studies agree that a reasonable target might be an improvement of 3-4 METs, which would increase from 6-7 to about 10 METs the maximal performance of middle-age type 2 male diabetic subjects 37,38 . Such an improvement

Physical Activity Needs Assessment of Individuals that Practice Fitness

Indirect calorimetry is used, usually, to estimate energy expenditure and is used in measuring the energy expended during a specific physical activity. The estimated total energy expenditure of a person who practices fitness is calculated by summing the resting energy expenditure of 24 h, the expenditure based on lifestyle (daily activity), and the expenditure related to exercise 1,2 .

Resistance And Viral Fitness

The effect of various NNRTI mutations on viral fitness has been evaluated in several studies. One study used site-directed mutagenesis to construct viruses with NNRTI-resistance mutations and compared replication capacities and phenotypic susceptibilities with wild-type virus. The following commonly occurring mutations had no effect on viral replication capacity K103N, Y181C I, Y188C H L, and G190A. Several mutations, V106A, G190C S, P225H, M230L, and P236L, conferred substantial reductions in viral fitness. Double mutants had varying degrees of altered replication capacity, indicating that the replication capacity of virus with more than one NNRTI mutation cannot be predicted based on the replication capacity of single mutants (47). However, the accumulation of multiple mutations has been shown to cause a significant reduction in fitness (48). Because virus with NNRTI-resistance mutations may persist long after the NNRTI-selective drug pressure is removed, whether these mutations...

Body Fitness Prolongs Life

Multiple studies have now shown that people who maintain appropriate body fitness, using judicious regimens of exercise and weight control, have the additional benefit of prolonged life. Especially between the ages of 50 and 70, studies have shown mortality to be three times less in the most fit people than in the least fit. But why does body fitness prolong life The following are the two most evident reasons. First, body fitness and weight control greatly reduce cardiovascular disease. This results from (1) maintenance of moderately lower blood pressure and (2) reduced blood cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein along with increased high-density lipoprotein. As pointed out earlier, these changes all work together to reduce the number of heart attacks and brain strokes.

Group and Gender Differences in Appearance Fitnessand Health Beliefs

At each assessment, students, on average, expressed positive evaluations about themselves in terms of physical appearance, fitness, and health, and considered these dimensions to be quite relevant and important to them. For all 5-point judgments, students' mean scale scores were at or greater than 3.6 (and standard deviations smaller than one unit), thus suggesting homogeneous positive endorsement. These trends varied somewhat across gender. Male students reported significantly more positive evaluations about their appearance and their perceived fitness and health than the female students. They also assigned relatively more importance to fitness than the female students, whereas the female students rated appearance and health as relatively more important than the males. Descriptively, all these differences were not greater than two thirds of a point (on a 5-point scale), thus indicating important but not dramatic gender differences. Similarly, students enrolled in sport programs...

Michelle Pepper MDa Venu Akuthota MDb Eric C McCarty MDc

As athletes continue to be more competitive in their desire to be the best, they will train exceptionally hard, sometimes to the point of injury. For society generally in the United States, there is a desire to have a better fitness level and the initial zeal of running or getting in shape will occur in such a rapid fashion that injuries will sometimes happen. A common type of injury seen in competitive as well as recreational athletes is the stress fracture. This type of fracture can arise when the stresses on the bone are greater than the capacity of the bone to withstand and heal from the stresses. An understanding of the science and adaptations that occur with human bones when they undergo stress activity is necessary when looking at the causes and pathophysiology of stress fractures.

Imprinted genes and the coordination of fetal and postnatal growth in mammals

Being the right size in different circumstances and environments can crucially affect survival and reproductive success. Regulation of growth of an organism in relation to its environment is thus pivotal for evolutionary success and fitness. Related and similarly important is the regulation of the size of individual organs in the body in relation to each other and to the size of the whole organism, so that the body is the right shape and all the components work well together.

Telomeres and Organismal Aging

Generation 3 TERC knockout mice displayed an increased incidence of hair graying, hair loss, and skin lesions over time. These observations correlated inversely with telomere length in the animals, suggesting a link between the two. The aged generation 3 TERC- - animals displayed decreased bodyweight, suffered from an impaired stress response, and a decreased wound healing capacity. Although the mice did not suffer from the full spectrum of age-related pathophysiological symptoms of aging, a critical role of telomeres for the overall fitness and well-being of aging organisms could be demonstrated (Rudolph et al. 1999 see also Chang, this volume).

Insectperpetuated Rickettsiae

There are 2000 or so recognized flea species, but only two rickettsial infections (murine typhus, R. felis) associated with these insects. Similarly, there are 3000 species of lice (sucking as well as chewing), but only one rickettsial infection (R. prowazekii) known from these insects. If rickettsial diversification depends on cospeciation with the reservoir arthropod, we would expect to find many more rickettsiae within fleas or lice, as well as infections in the vertebrate hosts that serve as their blood-meal sources. Three possible hypotheses may be suggested to explain the apparent paradox (i) The vast majority of flea and louse species are from rodents and have varying degrees of host specificity. Both of these insects are generally nest parasites, and cannot travel long distances in the absence of a vertebrate host. The probability of a host-shift or a recombination-like event to generate diversity would seem less than for a vector arthropod that was highly mobile or more...

Outcomes measurement basic principles and applications in stroke rehabilitation

Can be evaluated using electromechanical devices or functional status scales. Psychologic and social characteristics are more difficult to evaluate because they are concepts and often cannot be observed directly. To assess a concept, we must make inferences from what we observe and decide if, for instance, an individual is independent, depressed, motivated, receiving sufficient support or coping with life's challenges. When one cannot directly observe these concepts or behaviors, they are termed constructs (Portney and Watkins, 2000). Other constructs we might want to assess include impairment, ability disability, community mobility, health status, self-efficacy, fitness, participation or quality of life. Such constructs are evaluated using standardized scales.

LiFraumeni Syndrome LFS

Linkage studies using markers on many chromosomes was not an easy approach owing to the paucity of suitable families, because the condition is so lethal that often no living affected members are available. The genetic fitness of cases is also likely to be reduced owing to development of malignancies in childhood and the faulty gene may therefore die out in families, making fewer available for analysis. Also, until an individual has developed a syndromal cancer, their genetic status is unknown. Penetrance is high but not complete, so one cannot be completely sure of the status of an unaffected individual even in their sixties. The lack of an identifiable phenotype present in many of the conditions described earlier is also a major hurdle. Therefore, Malkin et al. (1990) used a candidate gene approach. They argued that the condition was probably due to a mutation in a tumour was an unlikely choice as retinoblastoma had not been observed in any LFS families. They chose the TP53 gene,...

Management Of And Returntoplay Strategies For Lowrisk Fractures

Athletes at the end of a competitive season or in their offseason often desire to be healed from their stress fracture before resumption of preseason training or competition. For these athletes, treatment includes relative rest and activity modification to a pain-free level. The acceptable level of activity differs for each athlete and may include discontinuation of only the aggravating activity alone, discontinuing all training activities, or placing the patient on non-weight-bearing status (Table 1). To maintain fitness, athletes should be allowed to cross-train if it is pain-free. Frequent cross-training activities include cycling, swimming, and aqua-running. Low-risk stress fractures usually heal when the athlete is limited to pain-free activity for 4 to 8 weeks 26 . This period of healing is an ideal time to assess the modifiable risk factors that may decrease the chance for recurrent injury. Gradual increase in activity (activities of daily living) should begin after the athlete...

Controlling The Redundancy Of Genetic Elements

There is an additional reason for not having an excess of copies of a necessary functional gene multiple copies will drastically slow evolution in the Darwinian mutation-and-selection sense. With multiple copies of a gene present within an organism, a single advantageous mutation increases the fitness of the accompanying unimproved versions of the same gene simultaneously. The cell containing both a few copies of the new version and a number of copies of the older version may be less strongly selected when competing with cells containing only the non-improved multiple copies than if it had only improved copies. Therefore, although the cell having a single copy of the improved version, in addition to other unimproved versions of the same gene, may eventually outgrow the original cell type, it will grow more slowly than if the non-improved gene copies did not tag along. Although much has been written about selfish DNA, it must be noted that selfish DNA could only prosper later in...

The How and Why of Animal Behavior

There are two fundamental types of explanations for animal behavior. Ultimate explanations are based on evidence suggesting reasons why the behaviors contributed to the fitness of individuals over the evolutionary history of the species. Therefore, ultimate explanations are closely related to the effects of the behaviors in solving a species's problems in its natural habitat.

Shape of Organised Systems and Energy Maintained Form

In any process such as the cycle of material the conversion of energy is to work, useful constructs is limited by thermodynamic reasoning to a maximum amount (not 100 ). This maximum thermodynamic efficiency cannot be achieved by any machine working at a real speed and which operates under constraints. The resultant work output, we shall refer to as optimal insofar that waste is avoided. As the constraints in the ecosystem are often ill-defined the reader will observe a certain looseness in the use of the words efficiency and effectiveness (fitness) throughout this book (see Section 4.7 and Appendix 4C).

Minimum Genome Composition and the Cellular Environment

Define and describe the cellular environment, in which all genes are replicated. This collection of genes comprises a mutually reliant group without the function of any one of the genes, the cell cannot survive. More specifically, without the functions of any one of these genes, none of the constituent genes can replicate. In this way, one may consider the cell to be an environment in which genes can replicate. The minimum subset of genes whose products define the cell describes a group with an emergent property the ability to control their own environment. Regardless of what functions one requires a minimal cell to perform, some subset of replicating genes must be working together to maintain this environment outside of this environment, genes replicate very poorly. The products of this minimal subset of genes modify the environment so that the group may replicate more efficiently, thereby increasing their fitness. We will call this group of genes the cellular consortium. Horizontal...

The Insulin Connection

Until recently, carbohydrates were ignored as a health issue. They are at least as important, and probably more so, than fats in determining weight and cardiovascular fitness. The key to carbohydrates' influence is insulin. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to

Pathways and Controls

Components of cells and their interactions, produced by this energisation, that are to be described as an outline in this chapter. We shall be dealing here with components of biological chemistry as a whole and we shall not refer to any particular groups of organisms or to the divisions of space in them, i.e. compartments, which are so much a part of evolution, leaving those matters to Chapters 5-9. Much of the chapter is therefore about the functions of particular units of cells and not of organised activity and is close in content to traditional molecular biology. We shall ask repeatedly about the suitability, i.e. fitness, of individual types of unit, nucleotides, proteins, metal ions and so on for the tasks they perform. We leave on one side largely geological chemistry much though this is a partner in life's evolution. From the outset we must stress that in contrast to the general chemistry described in Chapters 1-3, we have to see that biological chemical systems can only use...

Sexuality And The Passions Of The Brain Introductory Remarks

Reproductive fitness is the ultimate currency of evolution. Sexual selection and the sources of human moral principles were the topics Darwin struggled with in his second great book on evolution Descent of Man (1871, 1874, 1st and 2nd editions for more on related evolutionary psychiatry issues, see Chapter 20). In laying the groundwork for modern sociobiology, Darwin made many provocative and often troublesome assertions, especially since human sexuality is politicized and regulated in most cultures. For instance, he asserted that man is more courageous, pugnacious and energetic than woman, and has a more inventive genius (1874, p. 552). We now know that this viewpoint reflects more cultural misconception than true biological fact. We now know that there are quite real gender differences in emotional cognitive strengths weaknesses at the population level, as well as at the level of brain structure and function (Kimura, 1999 Mealey, 2000), but it is exceedingly difficult to link the...

Pathways and Efficiency

Our belief is that an energised ecological system develops such that for given conditions it moves towards optimum retention of energy in chemicals so as to secure the overall optimal increase of thermal entropy production. The implications are two-fold first, the energy taken in is made use of in creating increasing concentrations of unstable energised chemicals by synthetic activity which then degrade only relatively slowly in concentration initially but later equally in a cycle second, the processes or pathways of reaction should be such that they produce effective chemicals in this respect. Such a system could be described loosely by saying that it is optimally efficient in the conditions. Now the word efficiency of a system has an important thermodynamic meaning which is often confused with this qualitative use of the word. Efficient in either case does not refer to the 100 transfer of energy in a process from one form to another which is the theoretical transfer of energy and...

Some recent contributions to evolutionary theory particularly relevant for the study of behavior

Fitness, in the Darwinian sense of reproductive success, implies that genes guide the creation of a phenotype that is designed to ensure their propagation into future generations. The genes of any individual occur not only in its offspring, however, but also in siblings and, with decreasing probability, the offspring of siblings, cousins, the offspring of cousins, and so forth. The concept of fitness therefore can be expanded to include descendants of near relatives, appropriately devalued as the relationship becomes more distant and the probability of having shared genes decreases.12 This augmented count of shared genes in relatives is called inclusive fitness. To put some numbers on the probabilities half of your genes are passed to your children on average you share half of your genes with a full brother or sister and a quarter of your genes will be present in your siblings' children or your own grandchildren. Thus, in general, natural selection...

Parameters of exercise training depend on the goal

For these reasons, we distinguish between exercise and task-specific training in neurorehabilita-tion. The term exercise training in the classical sense refers to cardiovascular fitness training (aerobic and anaerobic) or muscle strength training. The goal for these exercise training protocols is either cardiovascular conditioning as evidenced by various performance-based tests including VO2 peak in the former or targeted levels of voluntary muscle force (e.g., maximum torque) or muscle endurance (e.g., sub-maximal torque levels for a given duration) in the latter. There is an extensive literature in both of these areas that can be used to develop appropriate exercise parameters for the desired goal, including in individuals with neurologic impairments. The reader is referred to Chapter 21 by MacKay-Lyons in this volume for an excellent discussion of cardiovascular fitness and training in neurorehabilitation and Chapter 18 by Blanton and Wolf for a review of UE muscle weakness...

Collecting the evidence

The various techniques used in these studies may be divided into two groups 1) targeted disruption or deletion, and 2) random transposon mu-tagenesis followed by the analysis of individual viable clones or of the whole population after competitive outgrowth. Among other methods are complementation of temperature-sensitive mutant collections 42 , and gene 'knock-downs' by antisense RNA (reviewed in 43 ). Due to the substantial differences in gene inactivation techniques and growth conditions, the exact meaning of gene essentiality inferred by different studies varies from 'strictly indispensable' to 'contributes to fitness'. Moreover, various pitfalls, as well as significant variations in sensitivity and accuracy of detection protocols, lead to technical failures, false positive and false negative essentiality assignments for a significant number of genes. Therefore, choosing drug targets directly from single-genome essentiality data, even if generated in one of the relevant pathogens,...

Experimental designs to probe network functions

Then be used for the development of therapeutic compounds 95 . Similarly, familial background can be used to compare the responses of cells from a patient and those from the next of kin to reduce genetic differences to a minimum in the discovery of drug targets and for drug development 154 . Finally, adaptive evolution can be used to compare the changes in the functional states of networks as they improve in fitness through a rigorous selection process 61 .

Regulatory constraints

These constraints are fundamentally different than the three types discussed above. They are self-imposed and are subject to evolutionary change, and can thus be time variant. For this reason, these constraints may be referred to as regulatory restraints, in contrast to the physicochemical constraints, the topological constraints, and time-dependent environmental constraints. Based on environmental conditions, regulatory constraints provide a mechanism to eliminate suboptimal phenotypic states (recall Figure 2.5) and confine cellular functions to behaviors of high fitness. Regulatory constraints are produced in a variety of ways, including the amount of gene products present and their activity recall Figure 3.9.

Phenotypic and genotypic variation

Roff (1992) has pointed out that whereas most life history traits show considerable phenotypic variation, most empirical studies focus on trying to predict some optimum value. Phenotypic variation may result from plasticity of a single genotype or of different genotypes within a population. Roff argues that selection should favour the genotype that produces the most fit offspring in all environments encountered. Phenotypic variation may thus be expected to be largely a result of a reaction norm. However, the significant amounts of genetic variation observed in natural populations suggest that either no single genotype is most fit across all environments, or that mutations are generating variation at a pace close to its erosion by natural selection. Roff draws attention to the continuing debate on the role that mutation plays in the maintenance of genetic variance, and the fact that in virtually all studies genotype-by-environment interactions have been found. An obvious conclusion is...

Do Men and Women Desire the Same Thing in Mates

Evolutionary psychologists argue that there are major differences in what men and women desire in romantic partners and mates. An animal's fitness depends on how successful it is in transmitting its genes to subsequent generations. It is to both men's and women's evolutionary advantage to produce as many progeny as possible. Men and women differ, however, in ideal reproductive strategies men seek quantity, women quality in a mate if they are to maximize reproductive outcomes. This logic led Buss (1994) to propose a sexual strategies theory of human mating. Men and women, he argues, are genetically programmed to desire different traits in potential mates. Men prefer women who are physically attractive, healthy, and

Effects of predation on prey populations

Predator avoidance adaptations typically result in lost foraging opportunity, reduced growth rate, adult body size, and fecundity, and thus an overall reduction in fitness. When Baetis was reared in laboratory microcosms containing predaceous stoneflies with glued mouthparts, nonlethal contact resulted in reduced gut fullness and smaller size at maturity relative to microcosms without stoneflies (Peckarsky et al. 1993). In the study by Cooper (1984) described earlier, female ger-rids from trout pools weighed less than those

Searching For Biomarkers In A Sea Of Human Variability

Independent of the -omics strategy employed or the analytical platform used, there is a fundamental issue that has surprisingly been given little attention, but which needs to be critically evaluated for the successful interpretation of any human -omics data human biological variability. As biological entities, humans and other species comprise complex biochemical networks that can exhibit high degrees of variability as a result of homeostatic oscillations associated with interactions between the organism's genome and its environment. Age, health, gender, diet, genetics, fitness level, weight, geography, race, circadian status, drug exposure, and even psychosomatic state are some of the factors that can contribute to human biological variability. A significant effort has been exerted in trying to understand the genetic components of human variability, as is evident by the characterization and creation of comprehensive single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) databases.1213 There have been...

Upper extremity repetitive strain injuries

Upon the style of the wheelchair and the fit to the user (Bayley et al., 1987 Curtis et al., 1995 Nichols et al., 1979). The low efficiency of manual wheelchairs make them ineffective for some individuals to use during activities of daily living. Manual wheelchair users also experience a high incidence of upper extremity pain and joint degeneration. Between 25 and 80 of long-term manual wheelchair users are reported to have injuries to the wrist, elbow or shoulder (Boninger et al., 1999, 2001). The risk of injury tends to increase with age, while cardiovascular fitness tends to decrease (Boninger et al., 2003a).

Michael L Tuggy and Cora Collette Breuner

Family physicians routinely treat many athletic injuries in their clinical practice. The benefits of long-term exercise in the prevention of common illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and falls in the elderly are well established. With the increased interest in fitness in the general population, the number of people resuming more active exercise as they age is increasing. Injuries sustained in childhood or adolescence may have long-term effects that can hamper later attempts at physical activity.1 For all ages of patients, proper training and prevention can lead to lifelong participation in athletic activities.

General Principles of HIV1 Entry

In addition, the external surfaces of CXCR4 have been noted to be more electronegative compared with CCR5, and in general the V3 loop of X4 viral strains has a more positive charge than the V3 loop of CCR5 using isolates. Basic amino acids at position 11 or 25 of the V3 loop are usually associated with X4 isolates (66). However, changes in V3 during the process of CCR5 to CXCR4 coreceptor switching may result in the generation of less-fit viral intermediates, and it has been shown that gain-of-fitness mutations in or near V1 V2 were able to compensate for the deleterious effects of V3 loop alterations on virus viability, although they did not confer CXCR4 use (51,52), and this suggests that the appearance and establishment of functional X4 variants during the course of infection may be a multistep process (reviewed in ref. 50).

Cardiovascular and Respiratory System

Age-related changes in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems can have significant behavioral and psychological consequences. However, not all older adults experience the same levels of decline of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Exercise, disease, and genetic predisposition are important factors, in addition to the effects of aging, in the determination of cardiorespiratory fitness. Increased age is often associated with reduced cardio-pulmonary fitness. The amount of blood ejected from the heart and the sensitivity of the heart to neural stimulation, which controls the timing and rate of heart contractions, decrease with age.

Selection For Gentle Retroviruses And The Mucosal Immune System

Going even farther out on a limb, one can imagine that the mucosal immune response could protect the fetus and the baby during the birthing process, and consequently, the neonate may be disease free. This might be accomplished by a strong IgA or T-cell response, or by an IgG response that is delivered through the placenta into the fetus. If it were possible in terms of the host's im-munological repertoire modulated by some stimulatory action of the pathogen, this would increase the fitness of the STD. Such a situation would lead to continued selection for such genetic variants of the host and in the STD through successive generations of virus and host in an environment with high levels of alternative, but similar, pathogens. These developments would include, of course, changes that would tune the growth of the retrovirus to a particular primate species. These changes may lead to effective prevention of infection by secondary pathogens or superinfection of the resident sexual disease...

Evaluation of Nutritional Status using Body Composition

The effects of exercise on body composition are diverse, in part because different assessment techniques of varying accuracy and precision are used to quantify exercise-related changes in body composition 3 . In addition, many exercise interventions are blended with other treatments, especially dietary modification, which further complicates the ability to determine the independent effects of exercise. It must be emphasized that there is a need to better understand the health benefits of exercise throughout the life span. The health benefits of regular physical activity and improved physical fitness are well documented 4 , and many of the known health benefits of exercise result, either directly or indirectly, from the beneficial effects of exercise on body composition 5 .

Why Is This Developing

Police departments are currently being pressed to acquire accreditation. Accreditation is one method of demonstrating an agency's efficiency and modernization. As of 1999, the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA) has accredited 457 local agencies throughout the United States. There are approximately 17,000 local police agencies in the United States. Many of these will seek accreditation to participate in lower-cost risk management insurance plans. Accreditation requires departments to provide various psychological services, including preemployment psychological assessment, fitness-for-duty assessment, and assessment for hostage negotiations and SWAT team applicants. In the near future, accreditation guidelines are likely to require the availability of psychologists, on staff or as consultants, to respond to postcritical incident stress situations.

Evaluation of Nutritional Status using Dietary Assessment

Evaluation of food and nutrient intake in individuals, including those practicing fitness, is difficult. Aim for fitness Adequate nutrient intake by individuals that practice fitness is important to meet not only the demands of their increased physical activity and performance,but also the demands of their growth and development (young individuals) and for their short- (injury risk) and long-term (chronic disease risk) health 1,2 . Eating disorders, in their many presentations, are a risk for individuals that practice fitness. Emphasizing the role of good nutrition and weight control in optimizing performance can reduce the risk of triggering an eating disorder. Education is a primary tool for reducing the risk of eating disorders.

Evaluation of Nutritional Status using Biochemical Assessment

Biochemical assessment of subjects that practice fitness provides information about how well their bodies are utilizing nutrients. Evidence exists that athletes need more protein than nonathletes 1 . It is well known that both men and women, athletes and nonathletes, frequently do not consume recommended amounts of calcium, folic acid, and vitamin E as well as iron 32 . The use of protein for energy formation by the bodies of persons that practice fitness is relatively small 1,32 . Controversy exists as to whether aerobic or resistance exercises increase the need for dietary protein, and some evidence exists that aerobic exercise does 3 . It was also demonstrated that strength training results in reduced protein requirements 3 . Assessment of serum lipid is strongly recommended in subjects that practice fitness regularly 1,32,33 . Prior to assessment, it is important that subjects abstain from alcohol for a 48-h period and from food for 12 h, and it is suggested that they abstain from...

Evaluation of Nutritional Status using Clinical Assessment

Many individuals of all ages participate in various athletic activities. Some of these individuals either may be at risk for a chronic disease, or may have already been diagnosed as having one. Of course, every person should have a medical and physical examination prior to initiating any exercise program 34 . Clinical assessment involves nutritional and medical histories, physical examination with biochemical tests in order to detect specific nutrient deficiencies, and identifying individuals at risk of future nutritional abnormalities 3,32-34 . It is important that subjects who practice fitness be questioned about symptoms suggestive of angina, hypertension, diabetes, and renal disease, as well as previous exercise status and drug history before starting any activity.

Clinical Presentation

Patients with stress fractures of the malleoli typically have a history of increased physical activity preceding the development of symptoms. For an established athlete, there may be a recent increase in training intensity or the addition of adjunctive training activities. Other patients may relate the recent commencement of a physical fitness program. Conversely, some patients report no recent changes to account for their symptoms. It is important to inquire regarding training habits, footwear, orthotics, and previous injuries. Patients who cross-train are less likely to experience a stress injury. Shoe and orthotic quality and design should be investigated. A history of previous injuries, including previous stress-related problems, may be revealing. It is important to inquire about eating disorders, weight loss, and menstrual irregularities in females. There is usually no history of trauma. As with most stress injuries, symptoms are aggravated with activity and relieved with rest....

Indications Contraindications

The extent of surgical treatment of sleep apnea is determined by patient motivation, the severity of symptoms, the severity of disease as determined by polysomnography, and the site of obstruction as well as the medical and psychological fitness of the patient. General recommendations for the surgical treatment of sleep apnea are as follows 9, 10

New Nnrtis And Resistance

The rational approach to designing NNRTIs that retain activity against virus harboring common NNRTI mutations, which will not themselves select for new mutations, is a challenge. One method would be to select a compound that induces mutations that confer a significant decline in viral fitness. W229 is such a site. It resides in the primer grip portion of RT. A mutation at this site, such as W229F or W229Y, has been shown to result in a virus with a significantly lowered DNA polymerase activity (41). Although this is a potential target of newer generation NNRTIs, no compounds in development take advantage of this strategy.

Definitions And Components Of

Whether a people speak Chinese, German, or Arabic and eat with chopsticks, forks, or fingers seems unlikely to have much to do with fitness. These are all viable alternatives. removed in geography or time. Behavioral choices may thus appear to be adaptive in the sense of enhancing fitness, yet not involve adaptation per se. la other words, alternative cultural solutions to similar ecological problems may be invoked with no alteration in the relative frequencies of genes. Charles Lumsden and Edward O. Wilson9 have approached this problem from a somewhat different perspective. Suppose, for the sake of argument, that natural selection had created a species that was truly a tabula rasa organism whose choices of cultural alternatives were totally unbiased by any genetic constraints. Under these conditions, any cultural choice could occur without regard to its effect on genetic fitness, but the system would be unstable in evolutionary time. It would be unstable because...

Conclusions and Future Directions

It is the refinements that make one form of expert reasoning different from another. Like other forms of expert reasoning, the law has its own terminology, its own universe of acceptable data, and its own rules. In law, the rules are more flexible than they are in some domains and more central than they are in most. They are more flexible than the rules of chess, for example, because in complex cases there are often many possible rules and precedents from which to choose, and both the facts and the rules can be interpreted and reinterpreted in relation to each other until the judge is satisfied with the total combination - satisfied with the fitness or coherence of the overall picture, and satisfied that the decision is just.

Different Environmental Possibilities

Consider that the development of form with internal compartments and utilising symbiosis must result in a parallel evolving chemical system. An example is in the deep sea trenches, where there is a source of H2S and to which oxygen is carried from the sea's circulation. Here novel, but worm- and clam-like, organisms together with prokaryotes have been discovered. They take up nutrients through their skins. Their source of energy is from the metabolism of H2S in captured (symbiotic) anaerobic bacteria (compare mitochondria). However, the construction of their bodies depends on oxidation - they are overall aerobic organisms of a novel chemotype limited by certain novel element availabilities and not yet fully characterised though they employ at least 15 of the same elements in the same ways functionally as do all other organisms. We see them as at the stage of development parallel to that on the surface of the Earth at least half a billion years ago. This system is out of balance with...

Summary of Thermodynamic Chemical Approach to Evolution

In Sections 11.5-11.10 we believe we have demonstrated that three of the thermodynamic characteristics of chemotypes (components with their concentrations, the space they use, and their organisation) have evolved systematically and inevitably following the equally inevitable changes of the environment. The other possible variables, external energy input, temperature and pressure, which characterise a dynamic flow system, have remained approximately fixed. The basic idea is the drive to an effective ( economically efficient ) ecosystem (see Appendix 4C for our use of the term efficient ). We treat organisms as a machine performing work in an incomplete cycle and seeking to utilise all possible sources of energy and materials (see Table 10.6) in the degradation of energy. We need to remember that all the systems use specific elements in particular oxidation states, not just selectively held but optimally functional in organisms as they absorb and degrade energy. This is not just a...

Functional genomics of bacterial pathogens 21 Comparative genomics

In subsequent studies high-density oligonucleotide GeneChips were used to compare the genomes of more than 100 M. tuberculosis isolates that had recently been collected from TB patients with that of the se-quenced reference strains 29, 30 . In total, 68 deletions were identified. Collectively, the deletions contain 224 ORFs corresponding to 5.5 of all annotated M. tuberculosis ORFs. Certain regions of the reference genome were deleted more frequently than expected by chance, suggesting that they are of low genomic stability. Because all isolates used in this study were collected from TB patients, the deleted ORFs are not essential for causing disease in humans. However, most deletions seem to slightly reduce the fitness of the pathogen 29 . The study also provoked intriguing hypotheses regarding the function of some of the strain-specific genes. For example, genes that are part of the M. tuberculosis DosR regulon, which is discussed below, were found to be deleted in a group of...

The case of Tibetan fraternal polyandry

What then of the conclusions As Tibetan fraternal polyandry seems to reduce the fitness of those who participate, the anthropologists Beall and Goldstein suggest that sociocultural, economic, and political factors can perpetuate mating systems that entail significant reproductive sacrifice, i.e., can perpetuate mating systems that decrease the individual and inclusive fitness of the individuals who practice them. 20 This conclusion, it seems to me, takes too narrow a view of evolutionary considerations. We have seen above that for a long-lived species that operates close to the carrying capacity of the environment, securing resources can become an important immediate goal, essential to ultimate reproductive success. It is therefore difficult to understand why many anthropologists assume that decisions about sociocultural, economic, and political factors have no relevance to fitness. From the description of the conditions under which Tibetan polyandry is adopted...

Principles Of Diagnosis

A detailed medical history begins with inquiring about an athlete's workout schedule, diet, pain pattern, medical problems, and, ifapplicable, menstrual cycle irregularities. Typically, pain begins after a change in the usual activity regimen or an increase in its intensity. The pain is usually nonspecific, insidious in onset, and activity-related. The severity of the pain may limit or prohibit activity. Some patients also may experience night pain. The location of pain as described by the patient can help to identify the site of the fracture. Other musculoskeletal problems involving the spine or ipsilateral knee can cause referred pain to the femur. In stress fractures of the femoral neck, the onset of progressive hip pain can be as early as 2 weeks after initiating or changing a conditioning program 32 . Patients with stress fractures of the femoral neck commonly have anterior groin (inguinal) pain 32 . In femoral shaft fractures, pain may be localized to the thigh, but in one...

Tickborne Rickettsiae

The proportion of infected eggs (filial infection rate) obtained from females of the same tick species infected with the same rickettsial strain may vary for as yet unknown reasons (33,34). For some rickettsia-tick relationships, such as R. montanensis in D. variabilis (32), R. slovaca in D. marginatus (24), and R. massiliae in Rh. sanguineus group ticks (31), maintenance of rickettsiae via TOT may reach 100 and have no effect on the reproductive fitness and viability of the tick host. In contrast, TOT of R. rickettsii in D. andersoni diminishes survival and reproductive capacity of progeny (34). Recent experiments have shown that R. rickettsii is lethal for the majority of experimentally and transovarially infected D. andersoni. In one study, most nymphs infected as larvae by feeding on rickettsemic guinea pigs died during the molt into adults, and most of adult female ticks infected as nymphs died prior to feeding. Rickettsiae were vertically transmitted to 39 of offspring, and...

Normal and Pathological Facilitation of Parturition by a Feedforward Endocrine Mechanism

Feedforward Mechanism

The emergence of mammals is tied to evolved brains, evolving placental function, and lactation (Easteal, 1999). The placenta is unique in its vast storehouse of biochemical information molecules that are vital to the developing fetus. Nature conserved, extended, and utilized the diverse myriad of information molecules that are well represented in the brain and the placenta and that are fundamental for normal development (Petraglia et al., 1990). Moreover, nature selected a number of endocrine mechanisms to facilitate the viability of fetal development and the progression of a healthy baby one is an endocrine mechanism that is feedforward. It also provided mechanisms to insure reproductive fitness for example, extreme nausea during pregnancy may, under some conditions, be a reaction to teratogens (Profet, 1991).

Competency To Stand Trial

Both defense and prosecution can raise the issue of competence. The courts have historically used mental health professionals, including psychologists and psychiatrists, to evaluate competency. Since competency is a legal issue, a judge makes the final determination, but evaluators have considerable influence (Roesch & Golding, 1980). Only a small proportion of defendants referred for fitness evaluations is found incompetent, usually about 10-25 . Robey's (1965) competency checklist is considered to be the first formalized measure of competency. Following this, the National Institute of Mental Health funded a research project that enabled the development of both the Competency Screening Test (Laboratory of Community Psychiatry, 1973), a 22-item screening test, and the Competency Assessment Instrument (Laboratory of Community Psychiatry, 1973), a more thorough semistructured interview. Other structured and semistructured interviews include the Georgia Court Competency Test-R (Johnson &...

Exercise Induced Improvements in Maximal Oxygen Uptake

In contrast to many studies 46, 47, 70, 71 we find that regular exercise training induces a substantial increase in VO2max in the rat-treadmill-model VO2max increases on average 10 per week until it levels off after 6-8 weeks of exercise training 42, 43, 72 . This is likely a result of the high aerobic intensity of the training regimen. Differences in training response reported in the literature are probably due to different training regimens used and or insufficient control of relative exercise intensity. The load required to produce a training effect has to increase as the performance improves during the course of training 8 . The training load should, therefore, be set relative to the level of fitness of the individual. Christensen 73 demonstrated, in humans, the need for a gradual increase in training load with improved performance, in the case of the effect on heart rate, as early as 1931. He observed that regular endurance training at a given exercise rate gradually lowered the...

Perspectives and Directions

In recent years remarkable strides have been made in our understanding of the molecular basis of phage lysis and its regulation. The progress has raised many new questions. That there are at least two general strategies for lysis is clear. All complex phages seem to use holin-endolysin lysis, whereas two of the prototype small ssDNA and ssRNA phages encode proteins which act as inhibitors of cell wall synthesis. The diversity of holins has always been a stunning, and somewhat daunting feature of lysis, suggesting that there may be several fundamentally different lysis mechanisms. Nevertheless, the basic features of all these systems are still comfortingly common, especially the ability to be triggered by energy poisons. It will be useful to assess whether class II and class III holins share the ''kill without warning'' property of the S holin, as they should if our understanding of what drives holin evolution is correct. In addition, although the discovery of the secretory endolysins...

Untrained Ecr Icr acquired drive

On the other hand, as soon as a useful innovation develops to fitness, it rapidly becomes public property and is soon perfected. For example, in 1946, when the technique of broadcasting images via radio waves to receivers which then project them onto a picture tube became ripe for general use, 6,000 television sets soon enriched households in the United States with this technical innovation. By the end of 1950 the number of sets increased to 4.4 million and reached the 50-million level within a further decade.

Differences Between Scientific Reasoning and Legal Reasoning

The need to decide the particular case one way or the other also pushes legal reasoning toward categorical thinking A person is either sane (guilty) or insane (not guilty) an unfit parent (someone else gets the child) or fit (he or she may get the child) a future danger to society (execution permitted) or not (execution not permitted, barring other aggravating factors). Psychologists consider sanity, fitness, and dangerousness to be continuous variables with no great gulf between the sane and the insane, the fit and the unfit, the safe and the dangerous, and many intermediate cases. But a legal case has to be decided for one party or the other, and so variables that are continuous are forced to become dichotomous. Sometimes there are more than two categories (first-degree murder, second-degree murder, and manslaughter), but a line must always be drawn.

Reasoning about Ultimate Causes of Behavior

In the last chapter we saw that during the previous twenty-five years our understanding of biological evolution has been deepened by several new or newly clarified concepts. Specifically, the following four stand out in importance for the evolution of behavior. First is the realization that in the vast majority of cases natural selection takes place at the level of individuals and not groups.1 Thus, arguments that such-and-such structure, process, or behavior occurs for the good of the species are generally incorrect. This is a point that was clearly understood by Charles Darwin but for many biologists was only brought into sharp focus by George Williams's Adaptation and Natural Selection, published in 1966. Second is the concept of inclusive fitness, which recognizes that copies of many of an animal's genes reside in close relatives and that in certain circumstances fitness can be enhanced by seemingly altruistic acts extended to others.2 Third is the theory of parental investment,...

Summary of Non Metal Functions in Cells

In the above, we have seen the ways in which, in principle, non-metal organic chemicals can be used to make the majority of the energised chemical components of a cell. We consider that the resultant thermodynamic flows of material and energy lead to the one major way in which energy can be optimally retained in cells in relation to the environment, while energy is degraded there or in the environment later. (The other major parts are in the concentration gradients of simple ions in cells, in particular metal ions, and in the oxidised chemicals of the environment.) For the energy retention to be optimal the cell requires selected molecules made for a variety of purposes from the available C02(C0), CH4, H2, NH3, HCN, N2, 02, H20, HPOfund HS' (SO ) in water solution. (Note again the word optimal is to be seen in the context of the rate of thermal entropy production as well as that of survival fitness.) The molecules had to form a kinetically stable machinery and an autocatalytic system...

Evolution of Phage Latent Period

When prereproductive periods are short, this means that free phage can rapidly find uninfected cells and then rapidly gear up for intracellular progeny maturation. Such conditions should select for rapid infection turnover (via shorter latent periods) such that phage progeny acquire uninfected hosts before those cells are obtained by competing phage. In general, then, high host densities and short phage eclipse periods should select for shorter phage latent periods (5). When prereproductive periods are long, by contrast, the reproductive period, once begun, is more valuable, thereby resulting in selection for increased per-infection productivity. Thus, low host densities or long phage eclipse periods should select for larger phage burst sizes, even at the expense of longer phage latent periods (5). The first of these predictions was recently confirmed by competing a mutant of phage RB69 against its longer latent period wildtype parent (6) higher host densities selected for the shorter...

Runaway arms races in a vertical feeding ecology

The tallest basketball player standing on the shoulders of the tallest elephant could hardly reach as high as an average (male) giraffe. Indeed, the giraffe is not only the tallest living animal, it is also taller than the next tallest by a margin that defies continuity (6 m compared with 4 m of the African elephant). This gives the giraffe free access to a hanging bed of foliage nearly 2 m beyond reach of all other land browsers - an impressive advantage by any ecological standard except that it seems to have partly exhausted its usefulness. Specifically, it leaves one-third of the giraffe's height (and two-thirds of its carotid artery) unexplained by competition with other species. The implication is that the expensive structures of the giraffe have long outreached their net survival value to the species as a group, though not necessarily to the individual. The only compelling reason these structures could actually work in favor of individual fitness (as distinct from group fitness)...

Inherited Low Maximal Oxygen Uptake Cardiovascular Risk Profile and Metabolic Syndrome

A specific aim of our research has been to determine whether rats selected on the basis of low versus high intrinsic exercise performance also differed in VO2max, mitochondrial oxidativepathways, and cardiovascular risk factors linked to the metabolicsyndrome.After eleven generations of selective breeding based upon aerobic treadmill running, contrasting rat lines of Low Capacity Runners (LCR) and High Capacity Runners (HCR) were obtained 66, 67 . HCR were superior to the LCR for distance run to exhaustion (347 ) and VO2max (60 ). LCR demonstrated a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, i.e., higher levels of factors such as body mass, visceral adiposity, blood pressure, insulin, glucose, free fatty acids, and triglycerides. This risk profile resembles the metabolic syndrome as described in humans 66 thus, the LCR rat model serves as an experimental model for this condition that is not based upon single-gene, chemical, or physical manipulation, but on artificial...

Management Of And Returntoplay Strategies For Highrisk Fractures

The management of each fracture should be individualized. For example, a recreational runner with a low-grade stress reaction of the fifth metatarsal can be treated with an ankle-foot orthosis boot and cross-training until symptoms resolve and healing is noted radiographically. Cross-training can maintain fitness at high levels 31,32 .

Division of labor in insect society

Box 4.2 Sterile workers Darwin, as well as R. A. Fisher, provided what now seem to be consistent, but only partial, explanations for the existence of sterile workers in the insects. Darwin viewed the question as one of the difficulties of his theory and proposed to resolve it by the fact that selection may be applied to the family, as well as to the individual (1964 237) - that is, essentially, by kin selection. Fisher took the argument a step further by making the, now common, analogy with the multicellular body The insect society more resembles a single animal body than a human society . . . the reproduction of the whole organism is confined to specialized reproductive tissue, whilst the remainder of the body . . . taking no part in reproduction (1958 200). Both explanations are obviously consistent with inclusive fitness, as the concept was developed by Hamilton, but both also fail to specify the explicit adaptive mechanism that singles out the hymenopterous worker for infertility...

Multibonding Across Cultures Case Examples

Since that time, polygamous marriages that have occurred have been entered into outside of the authority of the Church and outside of the law. A number of these relationships have resulted in the prosecution of the adults involved, as well as trials relating to the fitness of the parents to retain custody of their children (Sanderson v. Tryon, 1987). Current Utah law prohibits polygamous or plural marriages (Utah Const. Utah Code Ann., 2004), marriage of a child under the age of 16, in most cases (Utah Code Ann., 2004), and imposes criminal penalties on those who engage in bigamy (Utah Code Ann., 2004). However, various newspaper articles continue to document the occurrence of marriages involving one husband and multiple wives, despite the existing legal prohibitions and the fact that such marriages are legally void. In addition, these accounts have noted instances of abuse of multiple wives by Fundamentalist Mormons practicing polygamy, as well as the sexual abuse of female children,...

Host Parasite Interaction

Males, and cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) (72). It must be noted that females transmit Wolbachia to the offspring, whereas males are usually not involved in transmission. All the reproductive alterations effected by Wolbachia in arthropods are interpreted as having the overall effect of increasing the transmission rate of Wolbachia (72). Parthenogenesis and feminization cause a Wolbachia-infected female to generate more female offspring, which will in turn transmit the bacterium. In CI, embryonic death is observed after mating between males that are infected by certain strain of Wolbachia and females that are either uninfected or infected with an incompatible Wolbachia strain. Males infected by Wolbachia do not transmit it, but they sterilize those females that do not carry Wolbachia or those that carry a different compatibility type of Wolbachia. This reduction of the fitness of uninfected females implies an increase of the fitness of infected ones, thereby favoring the spread of...

Later Developments in Ethology

Ethological studies in recent years have also overlapped with the domain of sociobiology, wherein a large variety of behaviors are explained in terms of an expanded definition of evolutionary fitness that includes natural selection for benefits that accrue to all genetic relatives (kin selection Trivers, 1985). Elements of game theory have been introduced in ethology based on evidence that the old idea that a single set of species-specific behaviors characterizes all species is incorrect. In fact, behavioral polymorphism (distinctly different types of behaviors in different animals within the same species) has been identified in several species. These polymorphisms may be determined by an animal's social and environmental circumstances or may be genetically determined. Behaviors displaying polymorphic variation are often different reproductive strategies, with each having the same evolutionary fitness.

Why Did Holins Evolve

In principle, lysis requires only that the cell wall be at least partly degraded, or that its synthesis be corrupted during growth. Thus, to achieve lysis a phage needs only to produce a muralytic enzyme with a secretory signal sequence or to generate a polypeptide that blocks murein biosynthesis. However, it appears that all phages with sufficient genomic space have evolved a more sophisticated lysis system, involving at least one other protein, the holin, which imposes a strict temporal program on the mura-lytic enzyme, the endolysin. The universality of the holin program, ensuring that lysis occurs at a programmed time despite the undiminished capacity of the infected cell for continued virion production, must reflect an evolutionary adaptation. Theoretical analysis suggests that, for any specified host and environmental scenario, there is an ideal or optimal lysis time (1, 110 chapter 5). Irrespective of the details of the calculation, the clarifying perspective is simple to state...

The Role Of Delavirdine In Clinical Practice Table

High-grade resistance to delavirdine develops as a result of one of several point mutations, most commonly K103N or Y181C I (84). In addition, it seems that these mutations do not lead to a significant decrease in viral replication capacity or fitness (85), such that, once they are established, they are more likely than other genetic changes to persist in the absence of drug pressure. In this context, if delavirdine (as for other drugs in this class) were used within regimens that may not confer profound levels of virological suppression, resistance (and loss of drug effect) may occur quickly, and new genetic changes may persist for the lifetime of the patient. This should be borne in mind if the use of delavirdine is being considered, especially in heavily pretreated patients. In contrast, it may be that certain mutations at codon 190 selected by other NNRTIs may confer increased (or at least preserved) susceptibility to delavirdine because they decrease viral fitness (86), possibly...

Autonomous Replication Sequence

RnpA and rpmH genes, normally located near the oriC in other bacteria. Despite these structural similarities and the ability to support plasmid replication in E. coli, no experimental evidence for chromosomal replication initiation within the ars was demonstrated, and function as an oriC in C. burnetii remains unclear (22,23). With identification and isolation of the ars, the development of stable genetic systems for manipulation of C. burnetii becomes possible. In first experiments, the ars was used as a C. burnetii-specific replicon for construction of a ColE1-type shuttle vector, designated as pSK0(+)1000 encoding for -lactamase. Genetic analyses of resultant transformants revealed integrated and autonomously replicating states for the vector. Duplication of the ARS in these transformants, harboring an integrated vector, had no influence on replication fitness or viability and indicated the potential for genetic manipulation of C. burnetii, based on homologous recombination. The...

Motivation to Physical Activity

A rationale use of physical activity to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes mellitus requires the information about the amount of voluntary EE required to obtain significant benefits and about the minimum improvement in physical fitness that is associated with reduced mortality rates in diabetic and obese individuals. Both targets, EE and physical fitness, can be quantified using as a unit of measure the metabolic equivalent (MET). One MET corresponds to the consumption of 3.5 ml-kg-1-min-1 of oxygen, which is the average amount utilized by the human body in the resting state. Physical activity increases oxygen consumption (VO2) by contracting muscles in relationship to the quantity of activated muscles and exercise intensity. Thus, measuring VO2, it is possible to calculate the multiples of MET required for different activities in humans 31 . METs can be used either to describe the status of physical fitness by measuring the work load that a person can achieve before exhaustion...

Risk Factors for DVT Reconsidered in the Light of the VCHH

Ageing is generically associated with impaired bodily fitness. Increased inefficiency of valve cusp function and therefore an imperfect valve cycle (Chapter 9), as well as the expected onset of degenerative diseases, impaired mobility, pain and general deterioration of health after the age of 50, make hypoxaemic injury to the parietalis correspondingly more likely. A personal history of thromboembolic episodes increases the probability of progressive functional impairment in venous valves. Sustained periods of non-pulsatile flow may have injured valves in whatever segments of vein are involved and thrombi may have developed in some of these, destroying them in the process others will have become functionally impaired because of the overlayering of blood cells on the parietalis. IV lines are considered to cause local injury to the endothelium and to lead to a 'traumatic' DVT. Speculatively a catheter in a leg or arm vein could conceivably force keep open a parietal valve through which...

Evidence of the Athletes Heart

The athlete's heart is a hypertrophied heart with an increase in left ventricle volume and enhanced pumping capacity. A high level of VO2max, regardless of whether it is intrinsic or acquired, associates with the athlete's heart. Left ventricular weights scaled appropriately to body mass were 19 higher in HCR vs. LCR 66 . In both HCR and LCR, regular endurance exercise increased left ventricular weights and cardiomyocyte length significantly, but the increase is significantly higher in HCR than in LCR. This suggests that the HCR not only has evolved into having a higher intrinsic aerobic fitness, but also possess a higher responsiveness to exercise training than LCR, which may be traced back to its genome. We have also demonstrated a development of the heart into the athlete's heart in normal Sprague Dawley rats, as endurance training also in this model increases left ventricular mass and cardiomyocyte length and width 72 . It is apparent from our studies and

Preoperative Assessment

The patient is assessed, a full history is collected, clinical examination is carried out, and fitness for anesthesia and the neurovascular status of the limb are assessed, paying particular attention to the sural nerve. The diagnosis of chronic rupture may be difficult and require further imaging. Written informed consent is taken. The patient should be aware of wound problems, neurovascu-lar damage, altered sensation around the gracilis harvest site, calf wasting, weakness of ankle flexion, and the risk of failure of surgery and of anesthesia.

Utilization and Validation of Animal Models

One problem created by the focus of current missions on Space Station construction is that the duration in microgravity for any given crew member will not exceed 30 days. Such flights would neither be covered by the requirement for DXA measurements nor be likely to provide insights relevant to long-term spaceflight. Thus, epidemiology and monitoring are currently at a standstill. However, there remains an opportunity to derive useful research information from even these short-term missions. Current practice includes collection of multiple urine and blood specimens pre- and postflight. Inclusion of in-flight data collections would provide substantial benefit, but this is not currently part of routine flight procedure. Assessment of bone turnover markers using pre-, intra-, and postflight specimens should afford valuable insights regarding the skeletal effects of flight and of countermeasure intervention. In this regard, by the terms of the ISS Medical Operations Requirements Document...

Physiology Aminostatic Theories

Of cardiac muscle, 103 of skeletal muscle, 72-73, 73f, 75-78, 75f of smooth muscle, 93-94, 93f proteoglycan, 184-185,184f, 305 Filtration coefficient, 185-186, 190, 340, 341t Filtration fraction, 316, 319, 319f, 340, 346 Fitness. See Exercise. Flagellum, of sperm, 17,17f, 25

Warm Stains Cold Hits

The advent of CODIS compels comparison to Michel Foucault's The Birth of the Clinic and Discipline and Punish, where he introduces us to the notion of a clinical gaze.5 Foucault understands the clinical gaze as a tool for modern society to reveal, and thereby control and discipline, the truth of the body. That is, professionally trained experts armed with diagnostic technologies create systems for measuring, labeling, and ranking bodies. The clinical gaze becomes standardized through the creation of templates that ensure diagnostic reproducibility and limit subjective assessments. There are multiple clinical gazes that rank the mental and physical health and fitness of the human body. Exam- On an individual level, there are multiple ways the clinical gaze makes you feel watched. During health-care interactions, a doctor can measure your BMI and announce that you are overweight. Or you might read the equation for BMI in a fitness magazine and discover you are overweight. Or you might...

Analogy as distinct from homology

One can go on and list a myriad of other adaptations - notably, adaptations to gravity - all of which imply further diseconomies of scale. Best testimony to this effect is provided by the fact that an ant can lift and carry with ease a load many times its own weight, but a mule, our most efficient pack animal, is unfit to carry on its back even one of its own. One way or another, size operates to the disadvantage of the sizable. Indeed, viewed purely from a physiological standpoint almost all organisms with few exceptions seem to grow in size to a point where all economies of scale have already been exhausted and diseconomies of scale set in. The only exception where body size imparts a clear physiological advantage, as far as I am aware, occurs in certain adaptations to cold in extreme frigid environments and, even there, only under special conditions (i.e., only to the extent that the risk of hypothermia steadily dominates the risk of hyperthermia in all seasons). At the same time,...

Bone Remodeling

According to Wolffs law, bone has a cellular and molecular remodeling response to applied mechanical stress. The bony adaptation is a function of the number of loading cycles, cycle frequency, and the amount of strain, strain rate, and strain duration per cycle 13 . Both cortical and cancellous bone remodel continuously by osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity. This remodeling occurs throughout life and is affected by multiple factors including metabolic state, nutritional status, menstrual patterns, age, gender, level of fitness, and ethnicity. Bone also responds to piezoelectric changes, such that tensile forces create electropositivity and thereby stimulate osteoclastic activity 13 , whereas compressive forces create electronegativity and thereby stimulate osteoblastic activity. Most cortical stresses in nature are tensional. Torsion or twisting provides tension circumferentially, whereas bending produces tension on the convex side and compression on the concave side. Tensional...


Stands in terms of therapy development. Nicol Keith and Alan E. Bilsland focus on anticancer therapies targeting telomerase or telomere structure. Given that human cancers have very short telomeres and high levels of telomerase compared to non-transformed human tissues, destabilization of telomeres and inhibition of telomerase could both be promising targets in anticancer therapy. It is exciting to see that the first cancer clinical trials have been initiated using a novel telomerase enzyme inhibitor. Somewhat unexpected have been early successes using a telomerase immunotherapy for cancer therapy. In the final chapter Terence Davis and David Kipling introduce therapeutic approaches targeting stress signals downstream of DNA damage and or telomere dysfunction in Werner syndrome patients these approaches aim to improve cellular and organismal fitness during ageing. Although they focus on Werner syndrome, it is likely that some of these connections also apply to normal ageing...


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Evolution can be defined as 'change in allele frequency over time' the most important underlying processes are gene flow, genetic drift, mutation and natural selection. Precisely when a new species can be said to have arisen depends somewhat on the definition of species employed, but the mechanisms of speciation can be classified, primarily geographically, as follows (Avise, 2000). Allopatric speciation arises as a result of geographic isolation. For example, when migration or some chance event separates a population, the allele frequency in the new populations will generally not be the same as in the parent population, and will, from the time of separation onwards, develop independently. Furthermore, such events produce smaller populations, and so the relative importance of genetic drift increases. Sympatric speciation occurs when subspecies occupy the same area, but are reproductively separate because of different home environments. A third possibility, parapatric speciation, occurs...


Data of literature showing that modest increments of physical fitness in diabetic subjects reduce by twofold the risk of overall mortality 37, 38 support the establishment of physical activity programs in the cure of type 2 diabetes mellitus and or the metabolic syndrome. Since it is possible to motivate the majority of persons with metabolic syndrome to engage in the long-term practice of physical activity, it is time to move exercise from theory to daily ambulatory practice. In a recent web document the WHO (World Health Organization) states Physical inactivity is estimated to cause 2 million deaths worldwide annually. Globally, it is estimated to cause about 10 -16 of cases each of breast cancer, colon cancers and diabetes, and about 22 of ischemic heart disease. We have to do our best to direct our patients to use human genes for the scope they have been selected over millions of years physical activity.

When walking fails

Who are walking do so at less than 50 cm s (about 1 mph). The push for faster, more functional walking speeds and longer distances walked is an underplayed goal in rehabilitation. Successful approaches to improve these walking outcomes would lead to greater participation. More functional walking may also reduce risk factors for cardiovascular disease, recurrent stroke, and frailty by permitting more opportunity for exercise and fitness (Chapter 21 of Volume II) (Macko et al., 2001 Greenlund et al., 2002 Gill et al., 2002 Kurl et al., 2003).

Exercise and Health

The human genome was selected through natural selection to maximize fitness in the early ancestral environment, a time in which physical activity was the key for survival. Our genome has not changed much the last 100,000 years, and exercise still remains essential for optimal gene expression and avoidance of disease 1-3 . Physical inactivity is now established as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, an effect that is similar to that of high blood pressure, high levels of blood lipids, and smoking combined 4 . The human body is therefore not ideally suited for a Western lifestyle, where inactivity is the norm with a daily energy expenditure corresponding to only 38 of what our Paleolithic ancestors had 1-3 . An inactive lifestyle will therefore alter gene expression and perturb homeostasis in several organ systems towards the unphys-iological end of the range and lead to complex disease scenarios such as the metabolic syndrome. In the present...

Natural History

The reservoir hosts for R. rickettsii include several species of ticks from several genera, including Dermacentor, Rhipicephalus, and Amblyomma (Fig. 2) (21-23). In its acarine host, rickettsiae infect and replicate in several cell types, including ovaries, salivary gland and midgut epithelium, and hemocytes (24). Transstadial and transovarial transmission of rickettsiae in tick hosts is central to the maintenance of R. rickettsii in nature (25,26), and presumably contributes to persistent high-risk foci for human infection (see Case Clustering and Factors Influencing the Persistence of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Foci ). However, fitness costs associated with vertical transmission of R. rickettsii, as demonstrated for infected D. andersoni (27), may necessitate episodes of horizontal transmission of rickettsiae among ticks feeding on an infected vertebrate intermediary host. In this context, vertebrates are the source of blood for species of reservoir-host ticks, and may also...


Paternal toxicological screening could provide the means to intercede before repercussions originating from paternal exposures become apparent in the next generation. Because spermatogenesis is a process of continuous self-renewal, a transcriptome-based assay system such as a microarray provides the means to monitor and diagnose exposures, as well as provide a history of previous exposure. For example, collection of samples at regular intervals for 60 to 80 days (time to complete one round of spermatogenesis) and comparison of their RNA profiles to a normal fingerprint could be used to establish the type and severity of an exposure and subsequent detoxification. The value in our ability to identify, screen, and intercede is not limited to current environmental exposure. The significance and need to develop this capability are now reinforced by the threat of an unwarranted biological and chemical terrorist attack on the mass population. With this new diagnostic capacity we could ensure...


Among the various ethnic groups living in the United States, incidence of essential hypertension is highest among black Americans, with blacks exhibiting at least a two times greater risk than whites and most other ethnic groups (Kaplan, 2002). One of many studies that have supported this finding is the cardia study, a multi-site longitudinal investigation of over 5000 young adults conducted in the 1980s. Congruent with other findings, the cardia investigators reported significantly higher blood pressures among black than white young adult men and women (Liu et al., 1989). However, these authors noted that several lifestyle factors that differed between blacks and whites accounted for much of the observed blood pressure difference, including body mass index, fitness, and use of cigarettes and alcohol. Therefore, it is important to consider differences in these lifestyle variables when examining ethnic differences in blood pressure status, as they appear to interact with ethnicity to...


Rates and reduce fitness, and adaptation via natural selection to persistent predation risk. Top predators can cause a potential cascade of interactions through the trophic web, directly affecting prey by reducing their abundance and changing their foraging behavior, and indirectly influencing additional species to which the prey are linked as food or competitors. Furthermore, changes in energy pathways and species composition may have consequences for nutrient utilization and regeneration. We first consider the predator-prey linkage as an interaction between individuals that has effects on populations, directly through consumption and mortality, and indirectly through behavioral and morphological adaptations that may entail some fitness cost to the prey in order to survive. We then examine how predation can trigger trophic cascades that have consequences for the entire ecosystem.


Competition occurs when members of the same or different species utilize shared resources that are in limited supply, thereby reducing one another's individual fitness and population abundance through the depletion of those resources. This definition encompasses two mechanisms of competitive interaction. Exploitation competition involves the depletion of resources such that another individual is disadvantaged. Interference competition is a direct interaction, usually of an aggressive nature, for instance when one individual excludes another from a preferred habitat. Competition has long been viewed as a challenge to species coexistence, requiring sufficient differences between species to prevent competitive exclusion. Thus niche specialization becomes a key consideration in community assembly, a topic we return to in Chapter 10. Competition has been demonstrated in many different settings, however, and when it occurs it often is asymmetrical, with one species able to exclude a second...

What Is It

Police psychological services are generally grouped into two categories employee services and organizational services. Employee-oriented services generally recognize the employee as the client. Employee assistance services include counseling and assessment requested by the employee. Organizational services recognize the agency as the client and include preemployment psychological evaluations, fitness-for-duty evaluations, and management consultations. Hybrid services (such as crisis counseling) have developed which are both employee-oriented and organizational in nature. Crisis counseling may be requested and organized by the agency, but agency administrators have limited access to the process (Super, 1999). Police psychologists may provide services as agency employees or as contractual consultants, depending on the specific needs and resources of the agency.


Approximately one third of police psychologists assist in the selection of recruits for police training and in the selection of trainee graduates for positions in law enforcement. Psychologists conduct fitness-for-duty evaluations of police officers who have been in stressful or physically debilitating interactions while on the job. Psychologists have also participated in the assessment procedures for advanced placements and promotions within the law enforcement community (Blau, 1994).


BIA, skinfolds, and anthropometry are useful tools in subjects that practice fitness to design training programs intended to enhance physical performance and ultimately to control fat mass deposition. Anthropometric indicators of body composition are valuable for monitoring changes during the course of a season or from year to year in athletes and also in subjects that practice fitness 1-4 . Ultimately, the anthropometric indicators provide potentially useful information in monitoring individuals who might be at risk for disordered eating 1,3,4 .


The Multi-Dimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire 18,19 is a 69-item inventory that assesses self-evaluation and orientation towards appearance, fitness, and health. In particular, the self-evaluation items measure one's overall judgment of appearance, fitness, and health (e.g., I like my looks just the way they are I am very well coordinated I am a physically healthy person ), while orientation items measure one's psychological investment in, or the degree of importance of, appearance, fitness, and health (e.g., It is important that I always look good I try to be physically active I have deliberately developed a healthy lifestyle ). Individual items are rated on a 5-point scale (from definitely disagree to definitely agree), and responses are then averaged for each of the six scales, with higher scores indicating greater endorsement (i.e., more positive self-evaluation and higher importance ratings for appearance, fitness, and health dimensions). Item reliability analyses on...

Physical Activity

Documentation that physical activity level is the best predictor of long-term weight control. Other findings suggest that exercising at home leads to better adherence than does going out to a center and that exercising in several small bouts (i.e., 10 minutes) is just as effective as exercising in one longer bout (i.e., 40 minutes). Lifestyle activity (e.g., taking stairs instead of the elevator, parking at the far end of the lot, walking rather than driving to destinations) is as effective as programmed exercise in increasing cardiovascular fitness. Recent research raises the possibility that people can be fit at any size and that being fit and fat is better than being unfit and normal weight. This is a helpful concept, as it provides incentive for all individuals to increase their level of physical fitness, regardless of its impact on weight and body size. Increasing activity may be easier than losing weight hence, some in the field believe that activity should be emphasized over...

Positive to sweet

The roots of motivational systems are found within a biological perspective (Sober and Wilson, 1998) behavior evolved to serve animal reproductive ability and fitness (figure 2.7). Motivational states often cause a state change, but are also designed to maintain internal viability and to navigate external circumstances (see Gallistel, 1975, 1980). Consider another fact about peptides and neuropeptides consider oxytocin. Oxytocin plays multiple roles in facilitating physiological regulation of milk production during lactation and water homeostasis (Kaufman, 1981). But oxytocin expression in the brain underlies behavioral functions such as maternal attachment (see, e.g., Insel, 1992 Carter et al., 1999 Kendrick, 2000), and perhaps more generally for social recognition that underlies attachment behaviors (Ferguson et al., 2001). Oxytocin is both a pituitary peptide linked to milk production and a neu-ropeptide linked to a variety of central states in which behavior serves physiological...

Whats Next

Division 18 (Public Service) of the American Psychological Association (APA) has a Police Psychology and Public Safety subsection. Starting in about 1989 with 20 or so members, in 1999 there were approximately 252 members, including three fellows and 22 students in this subsection. Standards for preemployment psychological evaluations and fitness-for-duty evaluations have been developed and are under ongoing revision as new techniques emerge and as new applications of psychology to law enforcement arise. Several graduate institutions have begun to offer courses in police psychology.

Alan A Beaton

Despite a long history of speculation and investigation, the cause(s) of handedness remain(s) elusive (Snyder, 2000). The question of causation arises at a number of different levels. At the population level, Bol et al. (1997) suggested that the evolution of handedness may have been influenced by bacterial meningitis. They adduced evidence showing that severe forms of the disease are more often localized to the right hemisphere. On the assumption that cortical control of movements of the hands is largely contralateral, they argued that left-handers, more often than right-handers, may have died before reproductive age or, if they survived, suffered from sequelae that affected their reproductive fitness.

Demographic Factors

Aerobic fitness, muscle strength, andflexibility Previously inactive or less active military recruits have a higher incidence of stress fractures compared with those who are active before beginning basic training 29,48,49 . There are several possible factors contributing to this, including decreased aerobic fitness, decreased muscle strength, lower endurance, and poor flexibility. A study of military recruits found no association between aerobic fitness (predicted VO2max) and stress fracture risk 52 . It is unlikely that aerobic fitness alone accounts for the difference 53,54 . The role of flexibility on stress fractures has yet to be well defined 35,47,55 .


Cross-resistance between the three available NNRTIs can be explained by their binding to the same site of the RT. A mutation altering the binding properties of one of these drugs also effects the other members of the class. The sequential use of these agents in salvage therapy is still under study, but does not seem promising. It is not clear what, if any, fitness cost the virus must pay to maintain the resistance to NNRTIs, or whether, in a multidrug salvage regimen, recycling these drugs has a role.


Although there have been several studies examining the response of diabetic subjects to vanadium supplementation (see above), only a few have examined the effect of vanadium supplementation on strength, performance and bone and heart health indices of healthy adults. Fawcett et al.231 determined the effect of supplemental 0.5 mg vanadyl sulfate kg body weight day on body composition and performance in a study involving 40 individuals using weight training as part of their fitness program 31 completed the 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. It was concluded that the vanadium supplement was ineffective in changing body composition in weight-training athletes. There was a significant vanadium effect in one performance variable (leg extension), but this finding was compromised by the fact that the vanadium-supplemented group started at a lower baseline than the placebo group. Thus, this modest performance-enhancing effect requires confirmation. About 20 of the subjects taking...

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