Guilt Free Desserts
In addition to its direct contribution to consumer acceptance, texture has a vitally important secondary effect, through modulation of flavour release. If flavour components are to be perceived, they must be released from the food matrix in order to reach the appropriate receptors. This release of flavour is intimately related to the way in which the food structure breaks down in the mouth, and consequently to both the initial texture of the food and the change in texture throughout mastication (Section 1.2). In addition, the structural factors that deliver a specific texture can also influence appearance characteristics, for example the glossy surface of chocolate confectionery.
The brain isn't programmed by anyone it grows and develops the abilities it has. The brain does come equipped with its basic structure, but this structure is constantly being changed by our experience in the world. This is not like changing a program on a computer, where the hardware remains the same but the software changes. In the brain there is no distinction between hardware and software. Every change is a change of hardware. Every time we learn something new, every time we see a new scene, hear a new sentence or tune, touch a new fabric, taste a new dessert, smell a new flower, the connections between the neurons in our brain undergo some changes, and this constitutes a change in what we know - a change in our mind.
Another manifestation of loss aversion is a general reluctance to trade, illustrated in a study in which one-half of the subjects were given a decorated mug, whereas the others were given a bar of Swiss chocolate (Knetsch, 1989). Later, each subject was shown the alternative gift and offered the opportunity to trade his or her gift for the other. Because the initial allocation of gifts was arbitrary and transaction costs minimal, economic theory predicts that about one-half the participants would exchange their gifts. Loss aversion, however, predicts that most participants would be reluctant to give up a gift in their possession (a loss) to obtain the other (a gain). Indeed, only 10 of the participants chose to trade. This contrasts sharply with standard analysis in which the value of a good does not change when it becomes part of one's endowment.
Although this is not common knowledge to pharmacists or doctors, T4 is very sensitive to heat. A good rule of thumb is to use the chocolate bar rule. If the temperature is warm enough to soften a milk chocolate bar, then it will cause the T4 pill to go bad fairly quickly. Although the pill will look OK, it will not work, providing far less T4 to you than a fresh pill would. I've had patients who kept their T4 pills on a shelf above the stove, insisting that they were taking their T4 pills, yet ending up severely hypothy-roid with TSH levels greater than 50. I've seen some people leave their pills on the seat of their car, parked for a few hours in a Kentucky July afternoon, then find their tablets providing inadequate T4 levels. Many women carry their pill bottle in their purse, yet wouldn't keep a chocolate bar there, knowing it would melt. Some people, living without air-conditioning in hot climates, need to keep their pills in the refrigerator. This problem can also occur in the...
Diet The following irritating foods should be removed from the diet chocolate, nuts, cheese, and spicy foods. Coffee, because of its stimulating effect on any form of itching, should be limited to 1 cup a day. Rarely, certain other foods are noted by the patient to aggravate the pruritus.
Panellists develop their lists of descriptors by first evaluating a broad array of products that define the product category. The process includes using references to determine the best choice of term and to best define that term so that it is understood in the same way by all panellists. Words such as vanilla, chocolate or orange must describe an authentic vanilla, chocolate and orange character, for which clear references are supplied. All terms from all panellists are then compiled into a list that is comprehensive but not overlapping.
Habituation takes place also in the central nervous system of mammals. By monitoring in vivo the release of dopamine in different brain areas of rats using the micro-dialysis technique, it has been found that dopamine in the nucleus accumbens shell is also involved in the habituation phenomenon. Thus in rats, after a feeding of an unusual palatable food, such as Fonzies or chocolate, extracellular dopamine increases in the nucleus accumbens shell, but a second meal of the same food given after either 2 hours, 1 day, or 3 days fails to activate dopaminergic transmission. In addition, the delayed increase after an aversive gustatory stimulus (like quinine solutions) underwent habitua-tion after a single trial. Recovery of responsiveness and of habituation takes place 5 days after the last exposure to the stimulus. In contrast, exposure to Fonzies or chocolate or quinine increases the extracellular dopamine in the pre-frontal cortex, and a second exposure after 2 hours is able again to...
One must consider whether the air's corruption or putrefaction was sent for our desserts in chastisement for our sins, or whether it came through the infection of the air, or of the water, or of allied things, or whether it came from higher or superior causes such as the influence of the conjunction or appositions of planets. Because if it has come because of our sins the remedies of the medical arts are of little value.28
Currently Spirulina is used in various food application such as juice smoothies, confectionary, food bars, baked desserts, doughnuts, muffins, pasta, salad dressing, frozen desserts, snack foods, popcorn, corn chips, crackers, breakfast cereals, liquid or instant meals, instant soup, gnocchi, and even specialty beer. Spirulina is also widely used as an animal feed supplement.49 The increasing scientific and clinical evidence for its nutritional and potential health benefits50 is also attracting its use as a functional food in addition to its already established use as a dietary supplement.
Dairy beverages or nutritional supplements, one may consider asking about two main texture attributes, thickness consistency and chalky or smooth. If the attribute ratings are that of perceived intensities or appropriateness level and a sufficient number of products (six or more) are evaluated by consumers, it is then possible to predict the acceptance of a product (i.e. overall acceptance or acceptance of texture) from attribute ratings. Figure 2.5 is an illustration of such a concept. In this study, 10 chocolate nutritional beverages were evaluated by 150 consumers. The objective of the study was to identify the drivers of product acceptance, including important texture attributes. The nine-point hedonic scale was used to assess the overall degree of liking by consumers while the appropriateness of the level of color, chocolate flavour, sweetness, tartness, smoothness and thickness was assessed using JAR scales. Anchors used for the JAR scales are given in Table 2.2. Fig. 2.5...
For most solid foods, key sensory attributes can be defined that are known to be highly important in defining consumer acceptability, for example crispness in salad vegetables and snack foods, tenderness in meat, and snap in chocolate. The evolution of measurement methods has followed the need both to control these attributes in routine production and to understand how they can be designed into new products. The computerised modern instruments that utilise force-deformation principles are used almost universally in research functions and, with particular success, in quality control (QC) functions. A good example of this is the use by the French company Isigny Sainte-M re of Stable Micro Systems TA-XT2 Texture Analysers for on-line measurement of the firmness of Camembert cheeses to sort for different maturing conditions (Toursel, 1996). The reason for the successful applications in QC is easy to see. In such applications, it is more important to be able to detect changes in measurable...
In agriculture it is possible to incorporate genetically engineered traits into food crops for the improvement of food quality. The development in this area will enable the production of food ingredients with desirable characteristics directly from food crops, thus eliminating steps currently used in food processing. For example, canola plants may be modified to produce oils with specifications suitable for manufacture of margarine, eliminating the current process of blending and hydrogenation. Also explored are oils as suitable replacements of cocoa butter, the expensive ingredient used in chocolate and candy manufacturing. The nutritional value of food crops can be improved by changing the amino acid contents of seeds. Milk proteins, such as caseins, can be engineered to improve the manufacturing properties in cheese making and other dairy products. Genetically engineered soybean and canola plants produce oils with increased stability and suitable for high temperature frying and low...
Most patients presenting with decreased taste function actually have decreased smell function. The perception of decreased ability to taste during deglutition is usually due to a loss of flavor sensations derived from retronasal stimulation of the olfactory receptors rather than to a loss of taste bud-mediated sensations per se. Thus, such flavors as coffee, chocolate, vanilla, strawberry, pizza, licorice, steak sauce, root beer, and cola disappear when CN I is markedly damaged, leaving intact only sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami (monosodium glutamate-like) sensations. Whole-mouth taste function is much more resilient to pathological or trauma-related alterations than is olfactory function, in large part because the taste buds have redundant innervation from several cranial nerves (i.e., CN VII, IX, and X).
A related pattern was documented using tasting booths in an upscale grocery store, where shoppers were offered the opportunity to taste any of 6 jams in one condition, or any of 24 jams in the second (Iyengar & Lepper, 2000). In the 6-jams condition, 40 of shoppers stopped to have a taste and, of those, 30 proceeded to purchase a jam. In the 24-jam condition, a full 60 stopped to taste, but only 3 purchased. Presumably, the conflict between so many attractive options proved hard to resolve. Further studies found that those choosing goods (e.g., chocolate) from a larger set later reported lower satisfaction with their selections than those choosing from a smaller set. Conflict among options thus appears to make people less happy about choosing, as well as less happy with their eventual choices.
The fluid contained within an amebic liver abscess is usually dark reddish-brown and has been described most often as anchovy sauce or anchovy paste. This material, which is typically sterile and consists of a mixture of blood and destroyed liver cells, has also been described as resembling chocolate sauce, crushed strawberries, or wine dregs. Amebic trophozoites are rarely found within the pus of a liquefied amebic abscess, but they are found characteristically in the zone of necrotic tissue adjacent to the outer abscess wall. Demonstration of trophozoites is more frequent during the earlier stages of an abscess and is less likely in an older abscess with a thick fibrotic capsule. Histologic examination during the early stages reveals cytolysed and degenerated liver cells, erythrocytes, a few leukocytes, and occasionally an ameba. As the lesion progresses, a well-defined wall of connective tissue appears and surrounds the cavity that contains necrotic liver tissue. In an amebic...
Showed that children as young as three years could use analogies for both learning and problem solving if they understood the relevant relations, were able to retrieve them from memory, and understood the aims of the task. This was borne out by Goswami (1989), who showed that three-, four-, and six-year old children could perform analogies based on relations they understood, such as cutting or melting (e.g., chocolate melted chocolate snowman melted snowman). In a less tightly structured context, Gentner (1977) showed that four- to six-year-old children could map human body parts to inanimate objects such as trees (e.g., if a tree had a knee it would be on the trunk a short distance above the ground). There appears to be consensus now that young children can perform analogies with simple relations if they have the relevant domain knowledge and if the test format is appropriate to the age of the children.
Prescribe avoidance of these foods chocolate, nuts, cheese, cola drinks, iodized salt, seafood, alcohol, spices, and very hot drinks Chocolate This includes chocolate candy, chocolate ice cream, chocolate cake, chocolate-covered nuts, chocolate sodas, cocoa, and cola drinks. Hard candy (not chocolate) and soft drinks, other than the cola drinks, are all right in small or moderate amounts. You can drink the diet-type colas.
Different food materials are so-called cellular solids1 (Jeronimidis, 1991). In this type of food commodity, cellular refers to the pocket foam-like structure. The structure of these products consists of a solid phase surrounding air pockets. Examples are bread, dairy dessert foams and different types of snacks. The air pockets can be closed or interconnecting. The presence or absence of interconnections between the air pockets and the density of the material are the most important parameters affecting the mechanical properties of such products (Gibson and Ashby, 1988). The theory developed for cellular solids was successfully applied to unravel the effects of ingredients and processing conditions on the texture of bread crumb (Scanlon and Zghal, 2001). Understanding was gained by separating the effects on the air cells (size, shape, porosity) and the physical properties of the solid phase (stiffness, brittleness, starch retrogradation, gluten behaviour).
The interview covered different topics related to personal history and occupational exposure. Age and sex were documented. Personal history was directed towards former skin diseases, especially atopic dermatitis using the 'Erlangen atopy score' 46 . Respiratory atopy was documented as well. Occupational exposure was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. The apprentices were asked whether and for how long ( 1 h 1-4 h 4 h) they had to carry out exposure-specific tasks (cleaning of workplace and machines, cleaning of workroom and storage rooms, skin contact with wet dough, fruit handling, layer cake and chocolate preparation, oven work). Skin protection measures were documented, i.e. the use of gloves, protective creams and moisturizers. Additionally, hand washing frequency was monitored (20 times a day). Leisure time activities including wet work and contact with irritants like exposure to cleaning and dishwashing, baby care, car maintenance, house building or repair and gardening...
Many specific hungers or cravings remain unexplained, however. For example, many people report a marked craving for chocolate at certain times. The chocolate craving is particularly common among women around the time of menstruation. One hypothesis has been that chocolate acts as a kind of tranquilizer or in some other way counteracts the discomfort of menstruation and presumably discomfort at other times as well. However, providing either tranquilizers or hormonal treatments does not weaken the chocolate cravings of menstruating women (Michener, Rozin, Freeman, & Gale, 1999). It is possible that people learn a preference for chocolate because of some benefit and then maintain the habit even when it is not needed. However, the data currently available do not explain chocolate cravings. animals. Advances in the Study of Behavior, 27, 291-317. Michener, W., Rozin, P., Freeman, E., & Gale, L. (1999). The role of low progesterone and tension as triggers of perimenstrual chocolate and...
Quite large and cause pain or discomfort, sometimes enlarging rapidly. For this reason, the FNA biopsy is performed after placing a thin needle into the cyst and sucking out the cyst fluid with a syringe. The cyst fluid might be a straw-colored liquid or chocolate brown in color. It can be watery and thin or thick with blood. Sometimes its color appears greenish. Once the cyst is completely drained, an FNA biopsy is performed on the cyst's walls or solid components. This biopsy is evaluated using the method discussed earlier in this chapter.
Loxosceles spiders are light-brown to chocolate in color, with nocturnal habits, and are commonly found seeking warmth in discarded clothing. Usually the affected areas include the arm and thigh in adults or the face in children. Pain develops 2 to 8 hours after the bite. The lesion becomes indurated and red, showing a central blister and necrosis that can be quite large. The necrotic area eventually becomes mummified around the 14th day the resulting eschar may slough off. Rare symptoms include fever, chills, vomiting, and petechiae on skin, as well as thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia, especially in children. Treatment is with corticosteroids and dapsone, which may be effective in limiting the size and extension of the necrosis.
The Spirulina polysaccharide can be used as an ingredient of antiviral pharmaceutical compositions (liquid, powders, capsules), in foods or drinks like chocolate, tea, biscuits, hamburgers, and others alike. It is recommended to administrate orally the polysaccharide for humans, and animals such as domestic animals cattles, pigs, sheeps, goats, and pets like dogs, cats, at a dose of about 5-200 mg kg weight per day, depending on general conditions, severity of the diseases among other factors.
Of all the commentators, Screw publisher Al Goldstein was the most honest, reporting a story about the night he spent 100 on an escort. It was splendid, rollicking sex. When it was over, I felt like willing my body to science. And then she left. She left. As the supreme final act in our opera of fucking, her leaving was like a cherry on a sundae, a sumptuous dessert after a seven-course meal, a plunge into cool water after running a marathon. That's when I had my glistening realization. I realized I wasn't paying this woman for sex. I was paying her for the luxury of her leaving after sex (Peterson, 1995 52).
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