Ayurveda the Science of Life

Healthy Vibrant Women Virtual Summit

There are different factors that make a woman insecure and think less of herself. From how she looks, to her body changing after birth, a woman tends to lose a part of herself that they usually find hard to get back. In addition to that, most of these problems have negatively impacted the lives of many in terms of health, hence putting them at risk of contracting diseases or even early death. If you are a woman and you have questions that you have always wanted to ask regarding your health, it is very important that you join this virtual summit and learn from it. This is a summit where over 43 women's health experts reveal the secrets to living a vibrant, healthy life without worry, embarrassment, or fear ever again. With this program, you can finally be confident, fearless, and strong as a woman. Therefore, every woman should take this as a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity and make the best out of it by getting the answers to the different questions that they have always had regarding their health. Read more...

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Pathology Do You Need Surgery What Did the Surgeon Find

It may seem strange to you, but the most important diagnostic test you will ever have in your entire life, with regard to your thyroid, is the evaluation of the body parts removed during your thyroid surgery (surgical specimen). The pathologist's decision on the name of the thyroid disease revealed by your surgical specimen will determine the course of your medical care for the rest of your life. The decision may result in the use of treatments and diagnostic tests that entail significant time, commitment, and expense. It may affect your health insurance, life insurance, and employment opportunities. If a thyroid cancer is missed by the pathologist, you may fail to receive appropriate care from other excellent physicians and you risk having that cancer reveal itself, years later, having spread to the lung, spine, bones, or brain. On the other hand, the diagnosis of thyroid cancer justifies lifelong diagnostic testing and medical follow-up, as well as possible treatments with...

The Question Of Safety

Opposition to cloning on the basis of safety alone is almost surely a losing proposition. Although the media have concocted fantasies of dozens of malformed monster lambs paving the way for the birth of Dolly, fantasy is all it was. Of the 277 fused cells created by Wilmut and his colleagues, only 29 developed into embryos. These 29 embryos were placed into 13 ewes, of which one became pregnant and gave birth to Dolly.13 If safety is measured by the percentage of lambs born in good health, then the record, so far, is 100 for nuclear transplantation from an adult cell (albeit with a

Major Theoretical Concepts

Gestalt theory suggests that a continuing flow of needs and wishes comes into awareness, each of which can be thought of as a Gestalt, a figure or focus which emerges out of an un-differentiated background of experience. In healthy functioning, the organism mobilizes to meet each need, making contact with aspects of the environment appropriate to need satisfaction. For this self-regulating process to func

Vitamin D Preparations

Three major types of vitamin D are typically used to treat hypoparathyroidism. Your doctor should discuss the pros and cons of each form with you, and help you select the best one for your situation. Each type of vitamin D available has a different potency, takes a different length of time to become active, stays active for a different length of time, and, perhaps most important (depending on your health insurance status), has a different price tag. The formulations discussed here are in order of potency (least to greatest).

Medicine in the Postgenomic

Preventive medicine and controlling the spiraling cost of medical care. This would be an advantage not only for patients in wealthier countries but also for those in poorer countries with their huge burdens of infectious disease. Duff also is excited about using screening tests for genetic susceptibility to diseases. Screening would make it possible to modify risks by prescribing preventive medicines, adjusting the diet, choosing the best work environment, and making changes in lifestyle. In addition, people would be better equipped to manage their own health.

Thyroid Disease ana Obesity

The most important fact we wish to emphasize when it comes to thyroid disease and obesity is that it is extremely common for all obese persons to wonder whether their thyroid is making them fat. This chapter will help you sort out whether your obesity predates your thyroid problem, is aggravated by a thyroid problem, or is the result of one. Obesity refers to a body size that is too overweight for good health. Obese people have greater incidences of type 2 diabetes, heart attacks, strokes, peripheral vascular disease (circulation problems, leading to many other health problems), and certain types of cancers. Hypothyroidism can aggravate obesity and complications from obesity. Hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis, however, may cause an unhealthy type of weight loss, aggravating other conditions that may be linked to obesity, such as heart disease (see Chapter 25) or type 2 diabetes.

Risk factor physical inactivity

The World Health Report 2002 reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva, WHO, 2002 61. Kujala UM, Kaprio J, Sarna S, Koskenvuo M. Relationship of leisure-time physical activity and mortality the Finnish twin cohort. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1998, 279 440-444.

Trial participants and patients in routine clinical practice

And blind ascertainment of end-points. In most randomised controlled trials, participants are at lower risk than might be expected because with given eligibility criteria healthier people are more likely to end up enrolled in trials. Thus trial event rates may not apply to clinical practice and NNTs will tend to be inflated. In the Medical Research Council (MRC) mild hypertension trial21 event rates were much lower than in epidemiological studies and for fatal events were closer to those expected for normotensive men rather than hypertensive men. These differences reflect the selection bias mentioned above, and raise serious questions about the value of trial-derived NNTs (see Table 20.5). Selection bias may work in the opposite direction occasionally. In the Hypertension Detection and Follow Up Program - a comparison of careful stepped care versus usual care - the trial mortality rates were very high because the participants were predominately poor, and many were black.22

Less Health Risking Behaviors

Still another factor in the mechanism linking religion and health may be that religious behavior leads to less participation in those behaviors known to be in direct opposition to good health. Jarvis and Northcott (1987) reviewed the practices of members of nine major religions and found significant differences from nonpracticing controls in two main areas Most religions (1) prescribe behavior that prevents illness or death or that assists in treatment of sickness and (2) proscribe behavior that is harmful to life or that would hinder treatment. Woods and Ironson (1999), in their examination of the role of religiosity-spirituality in medically ill patients, reported that those patients identifying themselves as religious were more apt to cite their religious beliefs as the reason they did not smoke, did not drink, and chose healthy diets than did those patients not identifying themselves as religious. Several studies report positive correlations between reported religiosity and...

What Is Informed Consent

You may have heard the term informed consent but may not truly understand what it means. To uphold the principle of respect for persons, you have the right to accurate and full information about your health so you can make an informed decision about your health care. You cannot even know to refuse a procedure if you are not given this information first. This is known as informed consent. In order for informed consent to take place, three things have to happen Disclosure. Have you been provided with relevant and comprehensive information by your health-care provider For example, a description of the treatment its expected effects (duration of hospital stay, expected time to recovery, restrictions on daily activities, scars) information about relevant alternative options and their expected benefits and relevant risks and an explanation of the consequences of declining or delaying treatment. Have you been given an opportunity to ask questions, and has your healthcare provider been...

The Role of Individual Differences in the Association between Stress and Hypertension

Once an individual's vulnerability profile has been identified, steps can be taken to determine whether any of these vulnerability factors can be altered to presumably lower the risk for hypertension onset. Although Franklin cannot alter his age, gender, ethnicity, or parental health history status, he can take action to promote a healthier lifestyle,

What About Confidentiality

With your permission, however, your doctor can disclose or discuss your health information with anyone you like (such as an employer or other family members). In cases where you may need time off work, you may wish to have your doctor explain your thyroid condition to an employer, for example.

Beneficence and Nonmaleficence

To promote the well-being of patients and avoid harming them, therapies, treatments, or diagnostic tests that involve risks to your health need to be weighed against potential benefits. Here are some examples of beneficence issues Your health-care provider breaches your confidentiality, which results in harm. For example, your doctor socialized with your employer and tells him or her that you have a thyroid disorder, which requires you to take lifelong medication (thyroid hormone). The employer decides to alter your health benefits because of this information. Your health-care provider fails to warn you of a potential danger. For example, your doctor has a duty to warn you about not driving while hypothyroid. If you drive while hypothyroid and get into an accident, and your doctor has failed to warn you, the doctor could be found to be negligent. If you choose to drive, but have been warned not to, your doctor has nevertheless fulfilled his or her duty.

Complementary Therapies for Thyroid Patients

Although in many of my past works I have discussed specific herbal supplements (particularly the calming herbs ), in this book we have limited herbal therapies to aromatherapy. While many herbs have been shown to have health benefits, many of them conflict in some way with other medications, and can also affect how thyroid hormone may be absorbed. For example, St.-John's-wort, which was very popular in recent years, was shown, on further study, to interfere with certain medications, such as drugs for HIV. Herbs may be quite beneficial, but they should be treated like any other pharmaceutical product discuss their benefits and any potential risks or side effects with a knowledgeable pharmacist or doctor. Although herbal medicine experts are very knowledgeable about combining various herbs, they are probably not knowledgeable about thyroid health, or they may not understand the possible interactions the herbal medications might have with the conventional pharmaceutical products you're...

Home and community care

Local responses involve people in their homes, neighbourhoods and community organizations. They take responsibility for addressing HIV AIDS as a shared community concern. Community interventions to support PLWH should include supporting TB patients to complete treatment. Some PLWH regard TB as an ominous sign of AIDS.A more optimistic view of the development of TB is as an opportunity to seek help for a treatable condition.The prospect is of an increased healthy life expectancy. Targeted information, education and communication interventions can encourage the more optimistic view.

Organizations to Contact

The CDC's goal is to promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease. The organization has developed vital partnerships with public and private medical groups that can provide information and assistance to people in the United States and throughout the world. One of the CDC's functions is to investigate outbreaks of new and dangerous diseases such as SARS.

Where can I get more information

A health care provider should be consulted if you suspect you have a sexually transmitted disease. Your local health care provider or preventive medicine office can help you with the notification of your sexual contacts if you do have a sexually transmitted disease. CDC provides information through their National STD Hotline at (800) 227-8922. For further information regarding your sexual health, visit the Sexual Health and Responsibility Program Home Page at http www-nehc.med.naw.mil hp sharp.

Sexual Health and Responsibility Program SHARP

SHARP's HIV-AIDS Facts Quiz is a resource and self-study course for health care professionals, including Nurses, Physicians, Preventive Medicine Technicians, Independent Duty Corpsmen, and Environmental Health Officers. These registered SHARP instructors receive a copy of the American Red Cross Facts Book to help them answer, in a culturally sensitive, non-judgmental way, the HIV-AIDS questions people in their community are likely to ask. SHARP issues a certificate of training to each person who completes the 50-question quiz. Continuing education credit approval is pending. Fundamentals of HIV-STD Prevention Counseling is a 2 day course for Preventive Medicine Officers and Technicians, Environmental Health Officers, Independent Duty Corpsmen, health promoters, DoDDS school nurses, physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, clinical nurses, and family service counselors - people tasked to counsel individual Sailors and Marines regarding sexual behavioral risk reduction....

Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act DSHEA and Spirulina

Spirulina is sold in health food stores and similar outlets as a dietary supplement. There appears to be a lack of understanding about their regulatory status. Until 1994 dietary supplements were regulated as foods by FDA. However, with passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), Congress amended the food regulations to include several provisions that apply only to dietary supplements and dietary ingredients of dietary supplements. As a result of these provisions, dietary ingredients used in dietary supplements are no longer subject to the pre-market safety evaluations required of other new food ingredients or for new uses of old food ingredients. They must, however, meet the requirements of other safety provisions. FDA defines a dietary supplement as a product (other than tobacco) that is intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients a vitamin, a mineral, an herb or other botanical, an amino...

Approaches to Intelligence

In Kenya, research has shown that rural Kenyan school children have substantial knowledge about natural herbal medicines they believe fight infection Western children, of course, would not be able to identify any of these medicines (Sternberg et al., 2001 Sternberg & Grigorenko, 1997). In short, making a test culturally relevant appears to involve much more than just removing specific linguistic barriers to understanding.

Botanical Source Of 12-demethylmulticaulin

In China, herbal remedies made from S. miltiorrhiza roots are used by modern medicine to treat diseases such as cardio-cerebral ischemia, thrombosis, in the treatment of neurasthenic insomnia and in the prevention of myocardial infarction because they are capable of reducing aggregation of blood platelets, mobilising blood circulation, and of removing stasis (Chen, 1984 Chang and But, 1986 Lee et al, 1987 Liu et al., 1992). Danshensu, fi (3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)-lactic acid (structure 16), obtained from the water-soluble fraction of S. miltiorrhiza, is reported to dilate coronary artery and significantly antagonise constricting responses elicited by morphine and propranolol (Dong and Jiang, 1982 Xiao and Fu, 1987).

Pyrrolidine Alkaloids

Mutagenic and carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids are distributed in a variety of plant species. Humans are exposed to some of them in foods and herbal remedies. Petasitenine is present in coltsfoot, Petasites japonicus Maxim, the young flower stalks of which have been used as a food and a herbal remedy in Japan. Senkirkine, also having an otonecine moiety, is present in another kind of coltsfoot, Tsussilago farfara L., the dried buds of which are taken as a herbal remedy for coughs in China and Japan. Petasitenine and senkirkine are mutagenic to S. typhimurium TA100 with S9 mix, and carcinogenic in rats, inducing liver tumours (Hirono et al., 1977). Petasitenine and senkirkine are responsible for tumour-induction by the two kinds of coltsfoot, P. japonicus Maxim and T. farfara L., respectively. The structures of petasitenine and senkirkine are shown in Figure 2.

HRT Menopause and Thyroid Disease

For women in good health without thyroid disease, taking HRT in the short term to relieve menopausal symptoms is still considered a good option, as there is no evidence to suggest that short-term use (one to five years) of HRT is harmful. The study has implications only for women on oral HRT for long-term use (versus the patch) some-thing that was recommended to millions of women over the past twenty years because of perceived protection against heart disease. If you are suffering from great discomfort during perimenopause, and your thyroid hormone levels are normal (again, hypothyroid women in perimenopause may need to increase their thyroid hormone dosage), discuss with your health-care provider whether short-term HRT is an option. If you suffered from cardiovascular effects as a

Salvia yunnanensis CHWright

Herbal Medicine The Natural way to get well and stay well. Century Hutchinson ISBN 0-09-153691-X. Hoffmann, D. (1991). Thorsons Guide to Medical Herbalism a comprehensive and practical introduction, reprinted 1991. ISBN No. 0-7225 2494 3. Mills, Simon, Y. (1989) The A-Z of Modern Herbalism, A comprehensive guide to Practical Herbal Therapy. Thorsons (retitled) ISBN No. 0-7225-1882-X. Stuart, M. (1986). The Encyclopaedia of Herbs and Herbalism. Orbis ISBN 0-85613-700-6. Talalaj, S. & Czechowicz, A.S. (1989). Herbal Remedies harmful and beneficiai effects. Published by Hill Content Publishing, (first edition). ISBN No 0-85572-1898. Weiss, R.F. (1986). Herbal Medicine, (translated from the 6th. German edition of Lehrbuch der Phytotherapie by A.R.Meuss). The Bath Press. ISBN 0-906584-19-1.

Prevention personal choices and actions

1 Discuss all questions with your health care provider. 2 Have regular check-ups from your health care provider. 4 Follow your health care provider's instructions regarding physical activity, nutrition, weight management, and any medications you have been prescribed. Lower your total fat and saturated fat intake in accordance with your health care provider's instructions.

Risk Assessment and Risk Reduction Counseling Guidance and Training for Health Care Providers

A Gallop Organization poll commissioned by ASHA in 1995, found that over half of adults and over one-third of teens said their health care providers spend no time at all'' discussing STDs with them. Kaiser Family Foundation Glamour survey conducted in 1997 found that STDs are rarely discussed during OB GYN visits, and that providers may not be asking adequate risk-assessment questions (ASHA, 1999). This data is closely mirrored in other studies. For example, a study reported in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine (Tou, Irwin, and Kassler, 2000) revealed that only 28 of adults who had a routine check-up in the past year reported being asked about STDs during that visit. The survey measured topics which were asked by health care providers during routine check-ups. Condoms are also available at (Preventive Medicine pharmacy etc) and are sold in every Navy Exchange and local convenience store. Do you have any other concerns about your sexual health Good. If you have any other...

Representing Likeness

Humoral models of bodily operation existed in several ancient versions in sixth- and fifth-century B.C.E. Greek natural philosophy. Moreover, despite some faint parallels with Ayurvedic thought, humoral physiology seems unique to the West. During the second century C.E., Galen codified the Hippocratic model into a form that remained remarkably durable. After the fall of the western Roman Empire in the fifth century C.E., eastern Mediterranean scholars preserved and transmuted Greco-Roman natural philosophy, including Galen's, which subsequently influenced Islamic medicine. Animal bodies had humors that circulated throughout their interior and concentrated in a few crucial organs, or noble parts. 35 Although ancient authorities disagreed on important aspects of each of these conceptions, they shared a belief that both were operative. That is, Plato, Aristotle, the Hippocratic writers, Galen, Celsius, and others each thought that the humors, which are discussed below, had primary agency...

Institute of Materia Medica Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Peking Union Medical College 1 Xian Nong Tan Street

Intravascular Space Mammals

The genus Salvia has a variety of more than one hundred species distributed in several regions in China. Thirty of them are used as traditional and folk medicines (Huang 1991). The dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, called Danshen, is one of the most well known traditional Chinese medicines among these species. It has the effect of promoting blood circulation and removing stasis, and is widely used for the treat ment of coronary heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, hepatitis, hepatocirrhosis, chronic renal failure, dysmenorrhea and neurasthenic insomnia. The chemical constituents of S. miltiorrhiza have been studied for more than fifty years. But the studies have mainly been focused on the lipophylic diterpenoid quinones. According to traditional Chinese medicinal prescriptions it is used as a decoction. Since the seventies injections of Danshen have been used for the treatment of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction and various types of hepatitis. So there should still be...

The sexual division of labor

Stringent sexual division of labor was resurrected, however, by the relatively cumbersome technology of steam powered machines introduced at the early stages of the industrial revolution, only to diminish again with the introduction of electric power and the advances in medicine. Electric power (and more recently hi-tech electronics) brought industry closer to home and enabled more flexible work schedules. Advances in medicine, especially in preventive medicine, prolonged considerably life expectancy. Taken together, these two developments helped to extend the effective working life span of women well into, and long past, child-bearing age so much so, that the nonagricultural labor force participation rate of married women (an inverse measure of the sexual division of labor) went up in most developed countries from about 5 early in the twentieth century to nearly 60 toward its end. All in all, sexual patterns of division of labor in human societies seem to be highly adaptable in...

Brief Historical Perspective

Early representations of the liver were seen in the form of clay models of sheep livers from the Assyro-Babylonian era (3000-2000 BCE).1 Ancient cultures believed that the liver was responsible for generating heat and blood, qualities essential for life and soul. But it was not until the Classical Age of Greece when early beliefs, ideas and concepts of pathogenesis of liver disease were developed. Greek physicians regarded the liver, and particularly the portal system, as the starting point of many disorders. Hippocrates (460-375 BCE) believed that the liver secreted two humors, yellow and black bile, out of the four which constituted the essential components of bodily processes.2 The correct proportion of humors assured good health, and humor disproportion was responsible for development of disease. Excess yellow bile was believed to be associated with the qualities of warmth and dryness. Yellow bile induced acute disease and acted on the brain to cause restlessness and delirium. In...

Applicable diagnostic categories

R. recounted her stroke, she remembered feeling, almost instantaneously, an inability to understand what people were saying to her. She was in her early 50s and had just returned from a year of teaching and research abroad. As a distinguished historian, she had just completed a sabbatical year and was sought after by many universities. Although her father had died in his 50s of a heart attack, there was no family history of stroke. Her mother, a retired school teacher and hospital administrator was in good health in her 70s. It was a devastating symptom for someone whose life depended upon her ability to use language.

Initial Aspects of Treatment Establishment of Trust

Therapists working with patients with hypochondriasis rarely initiate questions with why, preferring to focus on empirically based questions starting with how, when, where, and what. This type of inquiry enables the therapist to get a more complete picture of the role of hypochondriasis symptoms in the context of a patient's daily life and to make a more rapid identification of contradictions and distortions in the patient's self-reports. Questions can be phrased accordingly What precedes your sporadic bouts of illness phobia When and where are you most likely to feel distressed about your health How do you feel after you remove yourself from an anxiety-provoking

How can my partners be given the information they need

There are a few ways to go about this. You might choose a different approach for each of partner, depending on your relationships and what you feel will work best for you and for them. Your health care professional will discuss each of these with you and help you formulate a plan.

What You Should Know About Ethical Guidelines in Health Care

Making an informed decision has to do with understanding what you are ethically owed as a patient by your health-care provider. It also means understanding how certain barriers can interfere with your getting the information you need to consent to certain treatments, and or becoming educated about your options.

Implicit Theories of Intelligence

Within our implicit theories of intelligence, we also recognize that it has different meanings in different contexts. A smart salesperson may show a different kind of intelligence than a smart neurosurgeon or a smart accountant, each of whom may show a different kind of intelligence than a smart choreographer, composer, athlete, or sculptor (see Sternberg et al., Chap. 15, for a discussion of the related concept of creativity). We often, use our implicit and context-relevant definitions of intelligence to make assessments of intelligence. Is your mechanic smart enough to find and fix the problem in your car Is your physician smart enough to find and treat your health problem Is this attractive person smart enough to hold your interest in a conversation

The Application of Research Methodology to Cancer Research

The need to provide support for research within the NHS is now recognized by the Department of Health and outlined in the Best Research for Best Health document (DoH, 2006), which summarizes the need to support individuals conducting leading edge research, with the aim of having more patients and health professionals participating in research and ultimately improving health. In addition, major funding bodies of research, including government, charity and industry sectors, have come together to form a partnership through the National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) to oversea cancer research in the United Kingdom. This organization focuses on the identification of gaps in research, opportunities for research, as well as funding support, with the aim of doubling the number of cancer patients entered into clinical trials (NCRI, 2004). Richardson, Miller and Potter (2002, p. 7) suggest that 'nursing research has too often been hampered by a limited focus, small sample sizes or inadequate...

Are There Natural Therapies for Graves Disease

Certain herbs have been touted to inhibit the enzyme responsible for the peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 (various dried roots, flowers, leaves, and seeds). Such effects are possible theoretically but definitely not of clinical significance and, even if of marginal effect, wholly insufficient to safeguard your health.

Respect for Persons or Patient Autonomy

A health-care provider has a duty to respect your personhood, wishes, bodily integrity, and health-care preferences. So information, counseling, and informed consent (see further on) are all crucial aspects of care, which support this principle. Sometimes your preferences conflict with other ethical duties of health-care practitioners. For example, in cases where you are refusing clearly beneficial therapy and harm will come to you if you refuse treatment, your health-care provider has a duty to intervene You refuse a certain treatment or procedure after being fully informed of all of the risks and benefits of that procedure, but your health-care provider tries to force you or coerce you into having the procedure anyway, which does not respect your choice. However, if harm will come to you without a particular therapy, your doctor may have an ethical duty to intervene. (Note this is often the case with radioactive iodine treatment for Graves' disease patients, discussed in Chapter 6.)...

Radioactive Iodine RAI Therapy for Graves Disease

It appears as though some Graves' disease patients with severe thyroid eye disease who receive radioactive iodine treatment tend to have a worsening of these symptoms (see Chapter 23). If you have significant thyroid eye disease, you should discuss going on a steroid medication if you're having RAI. The combination of a steroid drug and RAI has been shown to prevent a worsening of TED. That said, in cases of very severe TED, or when steroid medications present a risk to your health because of other health problems or medications you're taking, you may need to discuss other options.

Hashimotos Thyroiditis

Hashimoto's thyroiditis can be present at the same time as a thyroid cancer. For this reason, despite knowing that Hashimoto's is present, you still need to have the largest of the thyroid nodules examined by fine-needle biopsy. Thyroid hormone therapy (see Chapter 10) is necessary to provide the proper amount of thyroid hormone for good health, although there may be so much scar tissue in the gland that it doesn't shrink much from the treatment.

Locoregional Recurrence

In the approach to repeat resection, it is imperative that the patient and physician understand the extent and magnitude of the endeavor. The ideal patient should be in good health such extended resection in combination with preoperative chemoradiotherapy is not appropriate for patients who are in poor health, with American Society of Anesthesiology classification IV to V for certain and most patients with classification

Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

Although there are no chemotherapy drugs that are definitely curative for this cancer, some drugs (particularly paclitaxel) can temporarily diminish the tumor and extend your health and survival. There are very few physicians with enough experience with this cancer to have a clear understanding how to proceed. Make sure that your doctor is motivated to ask questions of other physicians and research available treatment options. Treatment options for anaplastic thyroid cancer are limited enough

Shortform36 Health Survey

INSTRUCTIONS This survey asks for your views about your health. This information will help keep track of how you feel and how well you are able to do your usual activities. 1. In general, would you say your health is 2. Compared to one year ago, how would you rate your health in general now 3. The following questions are about activities you might do during a typical day. Does your health now limit you in these activities If so, how much

Types of data

Qualitative data tend to be categories, thus people are male or female, European, American or Japanese, they have a disease or are in good health. They can be described as nominal or categorical. If there are only two categories they are described as binary data. Sometimes the categories can be ordered, so for example a person can get better , stay the same, or get worse .These are ordinal data. Often these will be scored, say, 1, 2, 3, but if you had two patients, one of whom got better and one of whom got worse, it makes no sense to say that on average they stayed the same (A statistician is someone with their head in the oven and their feet in the fridge, but on average they are comfortable ) The important feature about ordinal data is that they can be ordered, but there is no obvious weighting system. For example it is unclear how to weight healthy , ill , or dead as outcomes. (Often, as we shall see later, either scoring by giving consecutive whole numbers to the ordered...


Valerian is present in many herbal remedies, and is derived from a dried extract of the rhizome, root, and stolon of Valeriana officinalis. The active agents have not been precisely identified, but may include valepo-triates, volatile oils such as valerenic acid and other compounds. They probably act on GABAa receptors in the CNS. A

Culture And Health

Health is not just the absence of disease or infirmity but a state of physical, psychological, and social well-being. Health psychology is an applied discipline closely related to public health. It aims to improve human functioning, especially through better health care and prevention programs. Each culture has its own definition of health and health service. The Western industrialized countries tend to use a biomedical model for their services, emphasizing individual physical health. Developing countries, especially Asian ones, have a more collectivist, family-oriented, and holistic view of health and health service. Separation between mind and body is less distinct. Although Western ideas have penetrated deeply into many areas of the rest of the world, there remain strong influences from widespread folk beliefs about health. For instance, most Chinese believe that healthy nutrition requires a balance between hot and cold foods, and they accept and expect traditional Chinese medical...

T4 The Details

T4, generically known as levothyroxine, can provide all of the thyroid hormone needs for your health and happiness. Life with too little T4 is uncomfortable at best, afflicting all parts of the body (see Chapter 3), while life without any T4 is impossible for more than a few months. This section discusses all the intimate details of this critical hormone pill, so you can take full advantage of its benefits.

Other Problems

The cytostatic therapies that cured their cancers may have caused cardiac damage. Careful long-term surveillance, early diagnosis and prompt treatment will allow each patient the maximum opportunity to lead a productive and healthy life.


In general, as cancer cells are almost identical to other healthy body cells, the immune system is less efficient at dealing with tumours than with infectious agents. Indeed, most human antigens are tumour-associated antigens and are expressed in lower amounts in normal cells. In recent years, as a result of our better understanding of the cells and molecules of the immune system, the identification and characterization of tumour antigens of biological and clinical significance, and the development of novel adjuvants, we have been able to manipulate the immune system and provoke immune responses against human tumour antigens that are not normally immunogenic in cancer patients. Several clinical trials are currently under way in cancer patients using tumour cells that have been transfected with genes for cytokines and other co-stimulatory molecules, tumour antigens or antigen fragments in combination with new adjuvants as the source of cancer vaccines (Moingeon, 2001 Romero et al.,...

Disease Resistance

Salmonellosis can cause diarrhea, fever, and cramps and is sometimes fatal. Brucellosis may lead to brain infections and heart dysfunction, and tuberculosis is a deadly respiratory ailment. An animal that is naturally resistant to the diseases would be safer for humans to eat, yet would not have to be given antibiotics as preventive medicine. If it were also vaccinated, it would then be made as much as 100 to 1,000 times as resistant to the diseases as other cattle are.

The Good Life

Psychologists are increasingly drawn into the domain of ethics, a domain previously relegated to clergy and philosophers. Ethics has to do with the good life, asking questions such as What is the good How ought I act and Is happiness the ultimate goal in life Psychological research, in particular work done by clinical and social psychologists, is viewed by some as providing insight into these important questions. Psychological well-being, for example, is a collection of positive attributes that might be comparable to what philosophers refer to as virtues. Psychologists and philosophers alike agree that variables like good health, positive outlook, quality friends and social network, and a developed sense of self are all implicated in humans' ability to flourish. As with epistemology, there are those who believe that empirical evidence can provide answers to ethical questions. Although most thinkers agree that empirical findings can help people to more effectively realize their goals,...

Skin Bacteria

Though we need to keep the natural flora within bounds by bathing, the antibacterial campaign may backfire if it becomes too aggressive. Most natural flora are harmless and may help repel pathogens by competing with them for resources. In fact, many bacteria found in humans are beneficial and are required for a healthy life. The common skin bacteria Staphylococcus alba, for example, is usually harmless and may protect us from overly large numbers of Staphylococcus aureus, which is responsible for many infections.


Samira Asma, Associate Director, Global Tobacco Control, Office on Smoking and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA Jonathan R. Carapetis, Consultant in Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Centre for International Child Health, University of Melbourne, Australia Gilles Paradis, Division of Preventive Medicine, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Canada Neville Rigby, Director of Policy and Public Affairs, International Obesity TaskForce, International Association for the Study of Obesity Charles W. Warren, Distinguished Consultant Demographer, Global Tobacco Control, Office on Smoking and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA.


Although the behavioral, cognitive, and psychodynamic perspectives contribute to our understanding of factitious illness behavior, they cannot fully explain why people feign illness. The behavioral approach states that the sick role is desirable because it is positively or negatively reinforced through social learning. However, Schwartz, et al. (1994) found that social learning did not predict high health care utilization, a prominent behavior in most patients with FD. The cognitive theories are well tested and may be particularly useful in explaining hypochondriacal problems as a misinterpretation of bodily cues. However, in FD, physiological symptoms are not being misperceived or misinterpreted, they are being consciously produced. The implicit motivational assumption in the cognitive model is that people engage in illness behavior to ensure good health, but patients with severe FD are actually harming themselves and putting their health at risk. The psychodynamic explanations...


Industrial hydrocarbons such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene are rare causes of FHF, and their use is now prohibited in industrial cleaners.102 A nonchlorinated hydrocarbon, 2-nitropropane, found in coatings, inks, adhesives and paints, has also been reported to cause FHF following massive inhalation.103 In third world countries, ingestion of aflatoxin and herbal medicines have been implicated as causes of FHF and SFHF.104-106

Life ambitions

Research has begun to focus on children and young people's priorities for adulthood. Roberts and Sachdev's (1996) UK study examined young people's (12-19 years) social attitudes amongst the wealth of data generated were findings about ambitions. Fifty-nine per cent of their participants rated their most important life ambition (ranked first or second) as being happy, while 27 per cent wanted to have a family. Good health was important for 24 per cent of the sample, closely followed by having a good job (22 ) and being successful at work (20 ). Eighteen per cent wanted to be well off and 17 per cent to see the world. These findings were supported by an Observer YouGov poll, which found that almost 66 per cent of 11 to 21-year-olds rated happiness as their most important ambition. Contrary to popular belief, money was much less important to teenagers with only one in six rating it as their greatest priority in life (Summerskill 2002). A UK study by Barry (2001) examining 14 to...

Survival Rates

It is impossible to give statistics regarding the rates and lengths of survival from papillary thyroid cancer because papillary cancers range from tiny occult (meaning hidden) cancers, which have no effect on your life span if left untreated, to distantly metastatic tall cell variant papillary cancers that can dramatically affect your life span if left untreated. In general, most people with papillary thyroid cancer have a typical papillary cancer with excellent long-term survival, provided that reasonable medical care and follow-up evaluations are done. Survival statistics are altered by many variables, including your age at the time you were diagnosed, your sex, the size of your thyroid tumor, the extent of your tumor, whether you have metastases to other parts of your body, and whether your cancer cells are able to suck up radioactive iodine. These statistics are most useful to doctors trying to predict the outcome of large groups of people with similar cancer features....

Risk factors

Leading 10 selected risk factors as percentage cause of disease burden measured in DALYs. The World Health Report 2002 reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva, WHO, 2002, 162. WHO. Quantifying selected major risks to health. The World Health Report 2002 reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva, WHO, 2002, 57-61.


The children and young people in our study indicated that their most important ambition was to have good friends. In School Years 8 and 9 (12-13 and 13-14 years) this was more important for girls than for boys. The second most important ambition was the desire to have good health. Third was to be in love with someone special and in School Year 7 this was more important for boys than for girls. The desire to have children was much less important, appearing low down on the overall rankings and considered to be only marginally more important than owning a house and travelling seeing the world. The overall importance of friends is not surprising given the age of the sample. Previous research has documented the importance of peer group relationships during middle childhood and adolescence and this is often particularly true for girls (see Cottrell 1996). The importance of the desire for good health is also supported by research that has documented the health concerns of young people...

Scottrade Center

Sedentary lifestyle is one of the ten leading causes of death and disability in the world 1 . Physical inactivity increases all causes mortality and the risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type II diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, colon and breast cancer, depression, and anxiety 2 . Yet, around the world, physical activity levels are decreasing, particularly among young people. It is estimated that less than 35 of young people are sufficiently active to benefit their present and future health and well-being 1 . This is discouraging for a number of reasons. First, research suggests that patterns of physical activity adopted at a young age are likely to persist into adulthood 3,4 . Second, involvement in physical activity and sports may encourage the adoption of other health behaviors such as a healthy diet, better safety practices such as seatbelt use, and the avoidance of health risk behaviors such as tobacco and alcohol use 5,6 . Thus, physical activity may influence health...

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